|Filmed in the newly completed CX Studio, CX Chair Professor Roger Greenhalgh (London, UK), outlines the plans for CX 2024. Now in its 46th year, the Charing Cross Symposium continues to champion world-class education, innovation and evidence and opens its doors to the global vascular and endovascular community.
Don’t miss […]
What to Expect In-Person @ CX 2024
I attend CX to network with international colleagues in the field of vascular surgery. The best part of CX was seeing my colleagues again in-person after the pandemic years.
The best thing for me about Charing Cross was the opportunity to deal hands-on with new technologies.
The IT […]
Abstract submissions for CX 2024 are now open! We are inviting senior and trainee clinicians working in the vascular and endovascular field to submit abstracts to be considered for in-person presentations and electronic posters in the CX 2024 Vascular & Endovascular Controversies Update, in-person and virtual from London, UK, 23-25 April 2024 (Tuesday to […]
The CX Executive and Abstract Boards would like to congratulate the senior and trainee clinicians who presented their abstracts at the Charing Cross Symposium 2023. In total over 50 abstracts were presented across the main programme and additional activities coving abdominal, peripheral, aortic arch, venous & lymphatic, vascular trauma, acute stroke and vascular access topics.
CX 2023 received over 350 abstract submissions and saw 50+ live presentations during the event. The presented abstracts were scored by an expert panel of moderators. The selected abstract sessions featured poster presentations from researchers from across the globe.
Abstract Poster Winner: Ali Kordzadeh
The top scoring abstract poster […]
We are happy to announce that the winning infomercial and infographics for the Hurting Leg Competition have been chosen!
The winners were selected via online public vote during the Rouleaux Club’s programme session on Thursday 27 April 2023. To relive this fantastic moment, you can view the session in full on-demand (you must be registered for […]
Watch this video to discover how to get the most from your CX experience – for both in-person and virtual delegates.
This video demonstrates how to use the mycx app / mycxonline web platform.
Learn how to;
– Access the full event programme
– Watch live content
– Participate in live discussion
– Create your own daily agenda
– Watch […]
CX 2023: 45 Years of Looking Forward
- 1978: Founded in 1978, the Charing Cross Symposium has gone on to become the leading global vascular symposium.
First held at the Drew Lecture Theatre of the Charing cross Hospital Medical School, CX provides first-class Education, Innovation and Evidence presented by world-leading experts.
- 1987: Dr. Michael DeBakey, vascular pioneer, […]
We spoke with Marianne Brodmann (Graz, Austria) who kindly shared her highlights of the upcoming Charing Cross 2023 programme. Dr. Brodmann also speaks on a number of interesting topics including; the value of a transradial approach for vascular disease interventions, predictors of drug-coated balloon efficacy in femoropopliteal intervention, the BEST CLI trial and the importance […]
In conversation with CX Chairman Professor Roger Greenhalgh, aortic expert Alexander Zimmerman (Zurich, Switzerland) discusses the upcoming Aortic course (Wednesday, 26 April), the importance of continuous education for the practicing surgeon and, a multidisciplinary approach to treating and managing the aorta.
A multidisciplinary approach to aortic aneurysm repair
Professor Zimmerman focuses on the importance of an taking interdisciplinary approach to […]
Professor Andrew Holden (Auckland, New Zealand) is really excited about the 18 podium first presentations showcasing new data at CX 2023 and uniquely, the interaction between a world-class faculty and expert audience.
Register now to attend CX 2023! Take a look at the upcoming podium first highlights below.
|CX 2023 – PODIUM FIRST:|
In this conversation between CX chairman Roger Greenhalgh and Professor of Vascular Surgery, Maarit Venermo (Helsinki, Finland), we discuss the importance of challenging the status quo in vascular and endovascular surgery.
Professor Venermo discusses challenging the status quo in superficial femoral artery management, non-invasive methods and her thoughts on aneurysms in the carotid artery “I’ve heard some […]
“I think the Charing Cross programme has worked very hard to make a comprehensive and up-to-date consensus on what we have available to us now, what we know now and where we are going.”
This week we sat down with Executive Board member and vascular surgeon Erin Murphy (Charlotte, United States) to talk […]
Start planning your CX 2023 itinerary today! We sat down with CX Executive Board member, Tilo Kölbel (Hamburg, Germany), to discuss the upcoming presentations in the Aortic techniques & technologies sessions. Register for the CX 2023 Consensus Update today!
Tilo Kölbel’s Highlights:
- Edited Case: Guo’s aortic arch reconstruction: A prospective, multiple center study about the safety and efficacy of […]
“I am really looking forward to seeing everyone at CX 2023 and it is going to be a great meeting. It is a pleasure and a privilege for us to be part of it and have the opportunity to present our trial data for the first time.”
Data and discussion on revascularisation treatment […]
The Rouleaux Club, in association with Charing Cross International Symposium 2023 and BIBA Medical Ltd, are holding a competition to create an infographic and/or infomercial intended to educate members of the public in Chronic Limb Threatening Ischaemia (CLTI) in a competition entitled “The Hurting Leg”. The competition will hopefully “encourage patients to present early to their GPs with […]
“It is absolutely key that we enthuse the young and that we show them what we can do in order to be interested in joining our professions.”
CX is offering more opportunities and benefits for trainees, fellows, early career surgeons and physicians than ever before. This week we sat down with Sophie Renton (London, UK), a consultant […]
Endovascular and Interventional Radiology Consultant Bella Huasen (Preston, United Kingdom) stopped by the CX studio to chat about the upcoming Charing Cross Symposium in April 2023.
Like all of us, she is looking forward to CX – to networking, debating and reaching consensus on peripheral arterial topics. We will be welcoming over 2,500 delegates, virtually and […]
What a year! We are taking a look back at the most viewed news stories. Check out these top stories and videos and make sure you haven’t missed any of 2022’s most-viewed news!
Remember – you can still claim up to 24 reciprocal EU/US CME credits for viewing CX 2022 and CX […]
As we reach the end of another busy year, the BIBA Medical team – organising CX 2023, publishing our newspaper and delivering customer and marketing insights – wanted to take this opportunity […]
As the year comes to a close, we are looking forward to 2023 and what is in store for CX attendees in April! There are so many fantastic reasons to attend CX in-person or online, see you in 2023!
What to Expect at CX 2023:
- First-time data releases
- CME points
- Exclusive networking opportunities
This year, we aim to reach consensus on renal interventional and vascular access issues. With the help of a world-class faculty, we will be leading a one day vascular access masterclass and workshop in London, which is the largest in Europe. We spoke with CX executive board members, Nick Inston (Birmingham, UK) and Kate Steiner […]
This year we expect over 2,500 in-person and 1,000 virtual participating vascular specialists to join us. In previous years we have hosted over 6,000 registrants virtually from over 120 countries due to the COVID-19 pandemic and are very excited to be back in London 25-27 April 2023. To make CX as accessible as possible, registrants will also have […]
CX 2023 is seeking to reach venous and lymphatic consensus on topics related to the superficial, deep and pelvic veins as well as venous ulcers and lymphatics. Reaching consensus this year will round out our three-year cycle of controversies, challenges and consensus. Topics will be addressed by the world-class CX faculty alongside […]
Edited case in the spotlight: Long-term clinical and patient focused outcomes for no-hope CLTI patients, Miguel Montero-Baker (Houston, United States)
Dr Miguel Montero-Baker (Houston, United States) stresses that the current disease state of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is leading to more complex below the ankle calcification patterns, specifically in renal failure patients. Within the edited case Montero-Baker champions transcatheter arterialisation of deep veins (TADV) with the LimFlow device, stating it is a procedure […]
Edited case in the spotlight: In stent restenosis and occlusion – an atherectomy plus DCB strategy, Martin Andrassy (Bruchsal, Germany)
Professor Martin Andrassy (Bruchsal, Germany) advocates that Jetstream Atherectomy can be used in all types of lesions effectively and safely. Andrassy notes that embolism occurs more often in in-stent restenosis (ISR) than in long de novo lesions, but the rare […]
Watch the global vascular field unite on our dedicated CX 2022 on-demand channel and re-live the decisive moments […]
We warmly invite our international friends and those unable to attend in-person to London to join us virtually at CX 2022. The world-class programme will be livestreamed and available on-demand, so you can watch whenever you’re ready – even after the event.
Virtual audience members can submit questions and join in on polling […]
The Charing Cross (CX) Symposium is about delivering world class vascular education, considering the evidence and showcasing innovation. The CX Innovation Showcase is dedicated to highlighting innovation, what it takes for a physician-inventor to succeed and for innovative ideas in the vascular and endovascular arena to […]
“An interdisciplinary problem”
CX 2022 will highlight Hurting Leg Challenges, addressing unbalanced amputation rates based on geography, distilling the underlying causes of “hurting legs” and getting patients into the right hands. Be a part of it – register your place and explore the programme online.
CX Executive […]
CX 2022 will unite the global vascular and endovascular community in-person, at the Hilton London Metropole, UK, and virtually (April 26–28, 2022). The most pressing vascular and endovascular challenges will be addressed by global thought leaders alongside audience participation, discussion and polling. Be a part of it – register your place
CX 2022 will highlight Venous and Lymphatic Challenges, focusing on appropriate care conundrums to venous challenges in relation to the “hurting leg”. Challenges related to the superficial, deep and pelvic veins, as well as venous wounds, will be addressed by global thought leaders alongside audience participation, polling and discussion. Be a part […]
Global thought leaders speak to CX, the first opportunity of the year to unite the vascular and endovascular field, face-to-face, about the challenges and opportunities at the crux of the aortic field. You can register with the early bird rates now.
Stéphan Haulon (Paris, France), highlights the […]
Nicholas Inston (Birmingham, UK) talks to CX about the challenges in creation, maintenance and salvage of vascular access in patients with end stage renal disease. Inston highlights the […]
Do not miss the opportunity to catch up on all CX Aortic Vienna content. You can still claim up to 15 reciprocal EU/US CME credits for registering and watching on-demand.
Day 3 featured presentations by Eric Roselli (Cleveland, […]
Watch the cardiac, vascular and […]
Eric Roselli (Cleveland, Ohio) speaks to CX Aortic Vienna about the future of aortic training and the advantages of exposing aortic trainees to multidisciplinary teams. Roselli advocates […]
Gustavo Oderich (Houston, Texas) talks to CX Aortic Vienna about the future of Zone 0 treatment, describing it as “the last frontier” to be taken over by endovascular means. Oderich stresses the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration with […]
Tilo Kölbel (Hamburg, Germany) speaks to CX Aortic Vienna about the excitement surrounding his edited case demonstrating […]
Joseph Coselli (Houston, USA) talks to CX Aortic Vienna about the pioneers of the aortic field and future of aortic practice. Coselli advocates the “need not to have silos” and that instead “we need to have teams” involving interventional radiology, cardiac, vascular and endovascular specialists to promote […]
We welcome you to join us at CX Aortic Vienna 2021 for three days of Education, Innovation and Evidence as we focus on treatments for complex aortic […]
Registration for CX Aortic Vienna 2021 (5–7 October) is officially open! The preliminary programme and CX Aortic Vienna Invited Faculty can now be viewed online.
We welcome all practitioners and specialists involved with aortic patient management to join […]
There is still time to register for CX 2021 on-demand and catch up on the first-class Education, Innovation, and Evidence presented by world-leading experts.
Day 3 of Livestream […]
There is still time to register for CX 2021 on-demand and catch up on the first-class Education, Innovation, and Evidence presented by world-leading experts.
History was made on Livestream 2 during the Deep Venous Controversies session when Joseph […]
Watch history unfold on our dedicated CX 2021 on-demand channel and relive the decisive debates of the event, whilst also benefiting from up to 16 reciprocal EU/US CME credits.
CX is privileged to be the platform to host these high-impact findings and invite you to watch on-demand to […]
Watch history unfold on our dedicated CX 2021 on-demand channel and relive the decisive debates of the event, whilst also benefiting from up to 16 reciprocal EU/US CME credits.
Highlighted from Day 2 was the long-awaited call to change agency recommendations regarding paclitaxel use in peripheral interventions, spearheaded […]
CX 2021 has finished but that does not mean you have missed your opportunity to view all the high-quality content that was on display. All our sessions, from both Livestream 1 and Livestream 2, are available on-demand on our dedicated CX 2021 channel.
To get access to the entire content from […]
CX 2021 has finished but that does not mean you have missed your opportunity to view all the high-quality content that was on display. All our sessions, from both Livestream 1 and Livestream 2, are available on-demand on our dedicated CX 2021 channel.
To get access to the entire content from […]
Barbara Rantner (Munich, Germany; CX Executive Board Member) discusses some of the upcoming highlights from the session including an array of debates which are outlined below and which Rantner notes “really matter to the global vascular community”.
You can register for CX 2021 here.
Christopher Aylwin (UK) talks about resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), which he notes will likely be the biggest controversial topic in this year’s Vascular […]
“International practice differences exist in cannulation and dialysis provision with some approaches aiming for fistulas to suit the logistics of dialysis, rather than best long-term outcomes for the fistula and the patient”
The CX 2021 Vascular Access Controversies Programme is designed to showcase the latest advances and disputes […]
‘Unacceptably high’ major amputation rates and the effects of COVID on the agenda in Hurting Leg session
William Jeffcoate (UK) discusses his upcoming presentation at the Hurting Leg session at CX 2021, titled The impact of socio-economic and clinical variables on the incidence of major amputation in people with diabetic foot ulcers.
The session, which will take place on Thursday 22 April, will shine a […]
Lowell Kabnick (USA) talks about what he is looking forward to in the upcoming Venous & Lymphatic Controversies (Superficial) session at CX 2021. He also discusses his own presentation, Is there evidence to justify an aggressive strategy for the ablation of incompetent perforators?. This controversial topic is “important to the […]
Colin Bicknell (UK) and Michael Jenkins (UK) will go toe-to-toe in a hotly anticipated debate at CX 2021 titled Standard EVAR can be used in most challenging necks. Bicknell will be arguing for the motion and Jenkins–who is current president of the Vascular Society of Great Britain and Ireland (VSGBI)–will be […]
Andrew Holden (New Zealand; CX Executive Board Member) discusses some of the main features of the upcoming Peripheral Proximal session at CX 2021 as well as his Podium 1st presentation–Five-year meta-analysis including mortality update with FDA-approved RCTs of paclitaxel devices.
You can register for CX 2021 here. […]
Re-live the inaugural CX Aortic Vienna with our complimentary on-demand offering, giving you access to the latest in aortic research and debate from world-leading experts.
This exclusive, one-off opportunity allows you to access every session from CX Aortic Vienna 2020, including the presentations, discussion, audience participation and polling.
CX Aortic Vienna broadcast […]
|Roberto Chiesa (Milan, Italy) talks about the importance of his practical HOW TO DO IT (HDTI) approach, the philosophy of which he will bring to the inaugural CX Aortic Vienna and will manifest through a range of “practical videos” showing the “most modern […]|
Alexander Zimmermann (Zürich, Switzerland) and Afshin Assadian (Vienna, Austria) talk about the “long tradition of cooperation” between the Austrian Society for Vascular Surgery (ÖGG) and the Swiss Society for Vascular Surgery (SGG), who will hold two joint sessions at the inaugural CX Aortic Vienna.
Zimmermann believes it is a […]
Maarit Venermo (Helsinki, Finland) talks about how CX Aortic Vienna will offer “high quality education” to people treating aortic diseases, and discusses her presentation at this inaugural event, titled ‘Ultrasound surveillance versus CT surveillance after EVAR’.
CX Aortic Vienna, which will be livestreamed on 8, 9, 10 and 11 September […]
Gustavo Oderich (Houston, USA) talks about the importance of left subclavian artery revascularisation ahead of his presentation at the inaugural CX Aortic Vienna, titled ‘Left subclavian artery preservation during thoracic endovascular repair’.
Oderich also discusses recent developments in the field including the “natural evolution” which has […]
The inaugural CX Aortic Vienna, to be livestreamed on 8, 9, 10 and 11 September 2020 with audience participation, discussion and polling, has been accredited with 12 EU/US reciprocal CME credits.
The CX Aortic Vienna 2020, London (live streaming), United Kingdom, 08/09/2020-11/09/2020 has been accredited […]
Afshin Assadian (Vienna, Austria), current president of the Austrian Society for Vascular Surgery, Alexander Zimmermann (Zurich, Switzerland) and Roberto Chiesa (Milan, Italy) share what to expect from the upcoming CX Aortic Vienna LIVE Virtual Conference, a comprehensive meeting on aortic therapies.
Top reasons to attend CX Aortic Vienna 2020:
- The inaugural CX Aortic Vienna will focus on the entire aorta, from the valve to iliac arteries
- CX Aortic Vienna will focus on the thoracic, infrarenal and iliac segments each day
- CX Aortic Vienna features a world-class aortic faculty
- CX […]
CX 2020 LIVE: Surgeon-modified and custom-made endografts carve their place in juxtarenal aneurysm treatment
Clockwise from top left: Roger Greenhalgh (London, UK), Stéphan Haulon (Paris, France), Gustavo Oderich (Rochester, USA), Nikolaos Tsilimparis (Munich, Germany), Bijan Modarai (London, UK) and Said Abisi (London, UK). Click on the image to watch the Juxtarenal Aneursym Consesus session on demand.
Roger Greenhalgh (top left), Armando Mansilha (top middle), Manj Gohel (top right), Christopher Cheng (bottom left), Michael Jolly (bottom middle), and Houman Jalaie (bottom right)
A poll of an enthused audience of venous specialists during the CX 2020 LIVE Deep Venous Disease Consensus […]
CX 2020 LIVE: Podium 1st Session to showcase new technologies and treatments in abdominal and thoracic aorta
Roberto Chiesa (Milan, Italy) invites you to the CX 2020 LIVE Aortic Podium 1st Session which will feature abdominal aortic and thoracic aortic presentations and discussion from specialists in the field, including Tilo Kölbel, Frank Arko, Eric Verhoeven, Stephan Haulon, Giovanni Torsello and Fabio Verzini.
The session, which begins on […]
Armando Mansilha (Porto, Portugal), who is also a member of the CX Venous Executive Board, welcomes you to the Deep Venous Disease Consensus session at CX 2020 LIVE. Deep venous disease is a “significant medical problem for patients” and also a “substantial burden for our healthcare systems”, notes Mansilha.
CX 2020 LIVE: Strong support for relining peripheral arteries and rivaroxaban use for widespread atherosclerosis
Roger Greenhalgh (top left), Gunnar Tepe (top right), Jean-Paul de Vries (bottom left), Andrew Holden (bottom middle) and Amer Zanabili (bottom right)
CX 2020 LIVE aortic arch discussion highlights importance of underlying pathology and benefit of multidisciplinary team
Roger Greenhalgh (top left), Stéphan Haulon (top right), Ludovic Canaud (bottom left), and Gustavo Oderich (bottom right)
This week, the CX 2020 LIVE agenda turned to the technically challenging topic of aortic arch interventions. Through presentations, discussion, and polling, the session—chaired by Roger Greenhalgh (London, UK) and […]
Ali Azizzadeh (top) chaired the CX 2020 LIVE Industry Symposium, which featured contributions from Hence Verghagen (bottom row left), Richard Gibbs (bottom row left), and Santi Trimarchi (bottom row right)
Benefits of using angulation control in thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), an update […]
CX 2020 LIVE features key registry data on EVAR durability with EXCLUDER Conformable AAA Endoprosthesis
Data from three global, real-world registries, GREAT, ExCeL and BSET-CLEVAR, evaluating the Excluder Conformable abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) Endoprosthesis with Active Control System, were shared online during the CX 2020 LIVE virtual, vascular conference. Broadcast to a global audience at the conclusion of the second […]
Chair Roger Greenhalgh (top left), moderator Andrew Holden (top right), Sapan Desai (bottom left), Sabine Steiner (bottom middle), and Misti Malone (bottom right)
CX 2020 LIVE came to life online—despite COVID-19—using state-of-the art broadcast technology to bring together more than 1,000 vascular specialists, […]
Michele Antonello (top) chairs the discussion, following the Industry Symposium, with Amer Zanabili and Bella Huasen.
CX 2020 LIVE will consist of 10 live sessions, which will feature audience participation, and run from 16:00 BST/11:00 EDT/17:00 CEST every Tuesday and Thursday, from 26 May until 25 June. Make sure you register now to participate in the CX 2020 LIVE sessions.
Nicholas Inston (Birmingham, UK), co-chair of the Vascular […]
CX 2020 LIVE to flag latest guidelines and stent durability in superficial and deep venous programmes
Manj Gohel (Cambridge, UK), who is also a member of the CX Venous Executive Board, welcomes you to CX 2020 LIVE, which will include some of the major highlights from the deep and superficial venous programmes.
A number of recently released “important guidelines” in the superficial venous space will be presented […]
CX 2020 LIVE: Durability of EVAR, sac diameter and NICE guidelines take the spotlight in first aortic session
World-leading vascular surgeon, Stéphan Haulon (Paris, France), who is also a member of the CX Aortic Executive Board, extols the “high-quality” digital educational programme of CX 2020 LIVE and highlights the “very exciting” thoracic aortic and abdominal aortic consensus sessions that will be chaired by a host of other experts […]
Roberto Chiesa (Milan, Italy), who was at the frontline of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Lombardy region of Italy, shares his team’s experience in tackling vascular and aortic emergencies during this time.
Chiesa outlines the response in the region to the pandemic, including the creation of new intensive care units (ICUs) […]
Join a wealth of experts and faculty from around the world for the very first session of CX 2020 LIVE—the inaugural virtual Charing Cross (CX) Symposium—titled ‘Paclitaxel-coated Device Consensus Update’.
Renowned interventional radiologist Andrew Holden (Auckland, New Zealand), who is a member of the CX Peripheral Arterial Executive Board, welcomes the […]
The Charing Cross (CX) Symposium, with its world-class faculty and unique focus on live audience participation, has announced the launch of a not-to-be missed and timely vascular and endovascular education virtual event: CX 2020 LIVE. Mark your calendars for this live digital experience, designed to deliver high-quality vascular education and featuring […]
The CX Symposium team has made the difficult but necessary decision to cancel the Charing Cross Symposium 2020 that was scheduled to take place from 21 to 24 April in London, UK. We will be refunding in full all the registration fees incurred by delegates and will work with our Faculty members to assist […]
Sophie Renton (London, UK) moderates a session with Michel Makaroun (Pittsburgh, USA) and Armando Mansilha (Porto, Portugal) where the trio discuss some of the challenges relating to recruitment within the field of vascular surgery.
Makaroun explains that there are two main recruitment pathways into vascular surgery in the USA but notes […]
Kevin Mani (Uppsala, Sweden) chats to BLearning about the upcoming Aortic Workshop at CX 2020 (Charing Cross Symposium; 21–24 April, London, UK), noting how the sessions will give attendees access to experts, the latest technologies and provide a platform for hands-on experience with new devices and imaging technology.
Workshop participants can take this […]
Roger Greenhalgh (London, UK) speaks to former president of the SVS (2018–2019) Michel Makaroun (Pittsburgh, USA) about the CX Symposium which Makaroun says “always has a special flavour” and is “a special meeting”. Makaroun also touches on some of the similarities and differences between CX and the SVS meeting in […]
Roger Greenhalgh (London, UK) and W L Gore’s Michael Koenke (Flagstaff, USA), take a look back at the history of the Charing Cross Symposium (CX), which began in 1978.
Koenke says that CX is a “special meeting for us”, adding that it is an “opportunity for us to connect with our […]
Roger Greenhalgh (London, UK) chats with Enrico Ascher (New York, USA) about some of the highlights of the CX Symposium, how it differs to the VEITH symposium in the USA and also how the two complement each other.
Ascher says he is always “totally amazed by the scientific level” of CX, […]
Alberto Muñoz (Bogota, Colombia) talks to BLearning at CX 2019 (Charing Cross Symposium; 15–18 April, London, UK) about how the meeting provides a “great opportunity” to update attendees on the latest in vascular and endovascular surgery.
Muñoz goes on to highlight the international flavour of Charing Cross and notes the importance of the […]
Roger Greenhalgh (London, UK) is joined by Fiona Rohlffs (Hamburg, Germany), Tilo Kölbel (Hamburg, Germany) and Heinz Jakob (Essen, Germany) to discuss the latest findings of the Stroke from Thoracic Endovascular Procedures (STEP) study which were presented at CX 2019 (Charing Cross Symposium; 15–18 April 2019, London, UK). […]
Leading experts including Robert Morgan (London, UK), Richard McWilliams (Liverpool, UK), Stéphan Haulon (Paris, France), Tilo Kölbel (Hamburg, Germany) and Peter Schneider (Honolulu, USA) discuss the various approaches to correcting endoleak during CX 2018 (Charing Cross Symposium; 24–27 April 2018; London, UK).
Giovanni Torsello (Münster, Germany) and Mauro Gargiulo (Bologna, Italy) discuss the “very high” morbidity and mortality caused by open surgery when treating complex aortic aneurysms. This is […]
Speaking at the Charing Cross Symposium 2019, Jeffrey Jump (Nyon, Switzerland), outlines the impact of the Medical Device Regulations (MDR), which he believes will be “the most devastating thing to happen to European healthcare in Europe since World War Two”.
Patients “will bear the brunt of this hardship” says Jump, who […]
Andrew Holden (Auckland, New Zealand) provides perspective on the first results from the Disrupt PAD III observational registry that were presented at the Charing Cross International Symposium 2019. This large registry is designed to evaluate the use of Intravascular Lithotripsy (IVL; Shockwave) in the treatment of calcified arteries beyond the […]
The 2019 Charing Cross Symposium (CX; 15–18 April, London, UK) featured an in-depth highlight session on the paclitaxel controversy. […]
Paul Hayes (Cambridge, UK), Frank Arko (Charlotte, USA) and Fabio Verzini (Turin, Italy) discuss the Valiant Navion™ (Medtronic) live thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) case at Charing Cross 2019, which demonstrated the use of the new CoveredSeal proximal configuration.
Hayes talks about the accuracy of the device’s deployment around the thoracic […]
Andrew Holden (Auckland, New Zealand) and Peter Schneider (San Francisco, USA) discuss the Tack Endovascular System (Intact Vascular) and its impact on below the knee and above the knee procedures at the Charing Cross Symposium 2019. Schneider talks about the “limitations of the current clunky stenting paradigm” and how the […]
A CX 2019 special session highlighted the durability of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and the implications of the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) draft aortic aneurysm guidelines. The final publication of these guidelines has been postponed on numerous occasions.
Opening the session, Stéphan Haulon and his team […]
Roger Greenhalgh (London, UK) interviewed Fiona Rohlffs (Hamburg, Germany), Maarit Venermo (Helsinki, Finland) and David Epstein (Granada, Spain) at the CX Live studio after their ‘Optimising surveillance and reintervention strategy following elective EVAR’ session.
Industry leaders say approximately 50% of all medical devices will be withdrawn from the market; around 30% of manufacturers will not survive and patients might be at risk as a result of the European Medical Device Regulation (EU MDR), which is described by some as the “most disruptive force […]
New APERTO AVF RCT data show DCB reduces restenosis significantly more than high-pressure balloon alone
Matteo Tozzi (Varese, Italy) discusses new data from the APERTO AVF study, the first randomised trial in China to compare the safety and efficacy of the APERTO drug-coated balloon (DCB; Cardionovum) with a high-pressure balloon. The trial results for the treatment of failing haemodialysis arteriovenous shunts were presented by Qizhuang […]
The CX Innovation Programme showcased technological developments happening in all areas of the Charing Cross Symposium: acute stroke, aortic, peripheral, venous, vascular access, and wound care. Additionally, a new “Dragons’ Den” winner was crowned.
In the first talk of the session, Lindsay Machan (Vancouver, Canada) talked about the lessons he had learnt from being a founder […]
Dittmar Boeckler (Heidelberg, Germany) tells CX Live that treating patients with thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) outside the instructions for use (IFU) has a dramatic effect on patient outcomes after the procedure. “We observed a significant increase in mortality […] an increased reintervention rate and four times higher endoleak rate,” […]
New MIMICS-2 trial data show helical stents provide durable treatment of diseased femoropopliteal arteries
New data from the MIMICS-2 trial show the BioMimics 3D stent, which mimics natural vascular curvature, remains safe and effective for patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease of the femoropopliteal arteries two years after implantation.
Principal investigator Timothy Sullivan (Minnesota, USA) presented the two-year findings at this year’s Charing […]
Novel data from the Stroke from Thoracic Endovascular Repair (STEP) collaborators has provided insight into current practice of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), and the future role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in reducing stroke from endovascular repair. The multicentre dataset was presented at a Charing […]
Endovascular repair matches open surgery for treatment of men with complex but low-risk aortoiliac disease using self-expanding covered stents
Endovascular repair shortens hospital stay and has comparable outcomes to open surgery when balloon-expandable covered stents are used to treat low-risk male patients with complex aortoiliac lesions, new data show. Michele Antonello (Padua, Italy), described some of the study’s key results during a presentation at […]
Interventionists can confidently use lower profile drug delivery platforms, based on data that shows 0.018-inch guidewire devices are non-inferior to 0.035-inch guidewires. In a Podium 1st presentation at Charing Cross (CX) Symposium on Thursday, Andrew Holden (Auckland, New Zealand) said: “At 90 days, we can […]
Tilo Kölbel’s team, led on site in Hamburg, Germany, by Giuseppe Panuccio, successfully performed a thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) on a 77-year old female patient with American Stroke Association (ASA) class III, and multiple aortic aneurysm disease with multiple aneurysms. The live case was viewed by […]
Michael Edmonds (London, UK), Thomas Serena (Warren, USA), Keith Harding (Cardiff, UK), and Williams Ennis (Oak Lawn, USA) talk at CX Live about the first ever iWounds workshop, the importance of wound management and what they hope to achieve.
Edmonds discusses why “too many legs are being lost” and Serena talks […]
Hear the latest thoughts on paclitaxel from global experts: their current practice and patient conversations
Following the latest information presented at the Charing Cross International Symposium related to the meta-analysis of paclitaxel-coated devices (Katsanos et al, JAHA), hear from a multi-specialty panel of global experts who are discussing their current practice and the way they […]
Using EndoAnchors to fix and seal endovascular aortic grafts is safe and effective for short-neck abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients, two-year data from the ANCHOR global registry have shown. Frank Arko (Charlotte, USA) presented the findings yesterday at CX Symposium in a podium first session, […]
As part of Wednesday’s CX Vascular Access Workshop in the Pillar Hall Learning Centre, there was a section of the programme on drug-coated balloon trial updates which ended with a panel discussion on whether peripheral vascular disease data is applicable to vascular access. The discussion […]
Yesterday, during the Aortic Podium 1st session, Fabio Verzini (Turin, Italy) reported that endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with an iliac branch endoprothesis (Gore) is safe and effective. He added that the procedure was associated with improved quality of life in the short term and […]
For the first time, the Charing Cross (CX) audience has been able to experience an array of virtual reality live cases in both the peripheral and aortic programmes. The virtual reality live streaming in 360° video, accompanied by a running commentary by the operator, provided a […]
The durability of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is in the limelight as the UK vascular community awaits the final aortic aneurysm guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), set to go against widespread endovascular practice in recommending open repair over EVAR. In May […]
Across the globe, vascular recruitment is struggling. This was the reason why delegates convened in the Upper Auditorium yesterday afternoon for a CX Highlight Session dedicated to the topic, where representatives from three continents explained exactly how and why the vascular specialty is experiencing this […]
Jade Hiramoto (San Francisco, USA) tells CX Live about why she believes “everyone should consider normalising glucose levels after long, complex endovascular aortic procedures—and maybe even after open thoracoabdominal aortic procedures.”
Hiramoto is presenting new research on this topic at the Charing Cross session on Spinal Cord Ischaemia in the Upper […]
Jonathan Beard, (Sheffield, UK), discusses the current medicolegal issues in the field and explains how vascular surgeons can become “the fall-guy for the inadequacies of other clinicians”. Beard touches on how the threshold for informed consent has changed “dramatically” in recent years which has led to “the death of […]
At the Charing Cross International Symposium, Gary Ansel (Columbus, Ohio) moderates a global panel that includes Thomas Albrecht (Berlin, Germany), Peter Schneider (San Francisco, USA) and Eric Secemsky (Boston, USA). The panel outlines the value of paclitaxel devices in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease patients; examines new evidence on […]
Podium 1st: The impact of polymer sealing on neck-related adverse events: Five-year results from ENCORE
Recorded presentation from CX Symposium 2019
Hence Verhagen, Rotterdam, Netherlands
Podium 1st: New developments in fusion imaging – artificial intelligence that deforms anatomy to maintain accuracy
Recorded presentation from CX Symposium 2019
Bijan Modarai, London, United Kingdom
Podium 1st: Potential EVAS cardiovascular mortality benefit through active sac management when compared to EVAR
Recorded presentation from CX Symposium 2019
Marc Schermerhorn, Boston, United States
Breaking news from CX 2019: Cook leads the way to data transparency with release of long-term ZILVER PTX patient-level data
There were several calls at the CX 2019 Highlight Session Paclitaxel: The last word on the need for a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data going forward and greater transparency and sharing of the available randomised controlled trial data of paclitaxel-coated devices.
Cook Medical has just announced the release of de-identifiable […]
Elena Ladich (Hollywood, USA) and Roger Greenhalgh (London, UK) discuss the current uncertainty surrounding the use of paclitaxel devices and the need for individual patient-level data analyses going forward to better understand the mortality signal raised by the Katsanos et al meta-analysis.
Ladich believes that “we need to take a step […]
While CX audience deems paclitaxel not dangerous, vascular pathologist says establishing “truth takes time”
Delegates voted overwhelmingly against the notion that there was a demonstrable danger in any organ of the body attributed to circulating paclitaxel. These polling results, with a 67% majority, came after vascular pathologist Elena Ladich (Hollywood, USA) presented insights from new analysis on the effects […]
On Monday, the 2019 Charing Cross (CX) Symposium opened with the Acute Stroke Challenges programme; the session, which was chaired by Barbara Rantner (Innsbruck, Austria), Hugh Markus (Cambridge, UK) and Ross Naylor (Leicester, UK), featured five CX debates, Hot carotid Challenges, intracranial thrombectomy, and stroke after […]
Office-based lower extremity arterial interventions are feasible, safe, and cost-effective, and provide high levels of patient satisfaction. Enrico Ascher (Brooklyn, USA) presented data that “challenges the dogma that high-risk patients should not be offered office-based endovascular infrainguinal arterial procedures”. He was providing a US perspective on ambulatory interventions at CX Symposium 2019.
Ascher cited studies that […]
Despite what current guidelines denote in addition to the emergence of data supporting the early intervention of venous ulceration, Alun Davies (London, UK) put forward that the recommendations are consistently being ignored, and highlighted that: “Urgent action is required to improve referral pathways between primary […]
Marianne Brodmann outlines follow-up and surveillance protocols after endovascular treatments for peripheral arterial disease (PAD), arguing for a standardised approach to ensure best practice for patients who have gone through peripheral endovascular procedures.
Endovascular procedures have become a key element of treating patients with PAD, either with intermittent claudication or critical limb […]
The first-ever 60-month data on Medtronic’s VenaSeal closure system were presented on Tuesday, indicating that at five years, treatment with the cyanoacrylate adhesive for closure of diseased vein segments was not inferior to the alternative treatment arm of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Nick Morrison of […]
In the Acute Stroke Challenges session on Monday, Nick Hopkins talks to CX Live about the “significant increase” of incidents of stroke following cardiac surgery which is “much more common than previously thought”.
Ross Naylor and Peter Schneider debated the impact of new technologies and innovations making carotid artery stenting as […]
Read the programme guide below or visit the CX 2019 online programme for the most up-to-date timings.
Register now to join him and the global vascular community at CX 2019!
CX Executive Board Members Gunnar Tepe and Thomas Zeller introduce the CX Special Session which aims to give the last word on paclitaxel and work with the vascular community to find the way forward.
Watch the video below, and see the final CX 2019 programme here.
The last word on the paclitaxel controversy
The meta-analysis of Katsanos et al in JAHA suggests the need for a reappraisal of paclitaxel-coated balloons and paclitaxel-eluting stents. CX 2019 will carry out an in-depth independent review of the benefits of paclitaxel in reducing restenosis versus the […]
The publication of the draft aortic guidelines by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in May 2018 raised quite a stir.
However, the story is not over. In a CX Special Session, new analysis will show what we now know about long-term EVAR outcomes, and the vascular community’s concerns over the […]
CX is Europe’s largest and longest-running vascular symposium and delivers vascular EDUCATION as it should be
CX raises CONTROVERSIES, CHALLENGES the evidence to reach CONSENSUS in a three yearly cycle after discussion involving a world-class faculty and expert audience.
CX uses both live cases and edited cases from leading aortic, peripheral and venous centres to illustrate […]
Since the publication of Katsanos et al’s meta-analysis in the Journal of the American Heart Association (JAHA), the science and support for paclitaxel-releasing devices in the legs is an unfolding story.
A CX 2019 Highlight session will feature two hours of independent review of the data and in-depth debate and discussion.
Nicholas Inston, member of the CX Vascular Access Executive Board, gives the highlights for this year’s CX Vascular Access Masterclass which will focus on the maintenance and not just the formation of vascular access.
Stephen Black, member of the CX Venous Executive Board, describes the wonderful opportunity that the Charing Cross Venous Challenges Programme offers as it brings together key developments in the science, learning experience in the Venous Village and input from the international faculty who share their vision.
Manj Gohel, member of the CX Venous Executive Board, previews some of the fantastic educational activity that is being planned for CX 2019.
From new outcomes of paclitaxel-coated devices to DCB use below the knee, the CX Peripheral Executive Board looks ahead to CX 2019 and raises some of the key questions that will be addressed in the programme.
In this interview, Meryl Davis, chair of the CX Abstract Board, talks about the benefits of presenting research at the CX Symposium and the importance of CX as a “global village”.
The CX Abstract Board is calling for senior and trainee doctors in the vascular and endovascular field to submit their […]
Abstract Submissions for CX 2020 are now closed
The CX Abstract Board is calling for senior and trainee doctors in the vascular and endovascular field to submit their abstracts for presentation at the Charing Cross Symposium (21–24 April 2020, London, UK).
The best abstract presentation […]
Download the iWounds at CX Symposium brochure to get all the details:
In addition to the plethora of late-breaking trials that were unveiled at this year’s Symposium, there was a vast array of Podium 1st presentations. These presentations showcased novel techniques and technologies, provided further insights into the safety and effectiveness of established devices, and highlighted potential solutions to current challenges in the management of vascular disease.
Poster prize winner Wei-Wen Ang with CX Abstract Board and Poster member Anna Prent
At Charing Cross 2018, abstracts were presented—across 17 sessions—on the five programme areas of CX: Acute stroke, Thoracic Aortic Abdominal Aortic, Peripheral, Venous, and Vascular Access. Additionally, throughout the symposium, delegates […]
CX 2018 in numbers
This year’s CX welcomed more than 4,000 participants at Olympia London from a record-breaking 86 countries.
A leader of innovation, CX 2018 hosted a record-breaking 71 exhibitors and 15 new product launches—similar numbers are expected for CX 2019.
See the full stats and highlights in the video above.
CX 2018 Dragons’ Den winner, Kieran Murphy, with the Dragons
The Innovation Showcase yesterday brought together the CX values of education, innovation, and evidence to paint a global picture of vascular entrepreneurship, highlighting the controversies currently threatening the next generation of game-changing products.
Beginning the […]
One-year outcomes of EndoAnchor study adds ESAR—endosuture aneurysm repair—to the endovascular lexicon
Frank Arko (Charlotte, USA) presented one-year results from the 70-patient short-neck cohort of the ANCHOR Registry. Patients were treated with an endograft and endoanchors (Endurant and Heli-FX, Medtronic) for abdominal aortic aneurysm. The data showed “very good clinical outcomes in a challenging patient population”, Arko […]
A physician-sponsored investigational device exemption trial on thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) using a new thoracic stent graft (Valiant thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm stent graft, Medtronic), along with its initial 30-day data, was revealed at a Podium 1st presentation at CX 2018 by Thomas Maldonado (New York, USA). […]
CX delegates were presented data from the first 10 EVAR patients treated using a new conformable device, the Gore Excluder conformable abdominal aortic aneurysm endoprosthesis with active control system, yesterday.
Robert Rhee (Brooklyn, New York), the national principal investigator of the US investigational device exemption (IDE) trial for […]
In an exciting session yesterday, the CX audience witnessed the demonstration of a novel treatment strategy with intravascular lithotripsy for calcified arterial stenosis. It will now become a CX tradition to feature live cases to showcase what has been discussed in the presentations, so that the audience […]
In yesterday’s plenary programmes, the future of the Charing Symposium was launched with the initiation of live case demonstrations to illustrate key data discussed on the programme. This year, both the Thoracic Aortic programme and the Peripheral Critical Ischaemia programme featured these illuminating cases, which stirred discussion and […]
Stroke is a major concern following TEVAR (thoracic endovascular aortic repair) and Charing Cross delegates heard the results from a collaborative study that pooled practice data from a number of high-volume centres in order to benefit patients undergoing the procedure. A highlight of the session was the […]
Ulf Teichgräber discusses the EffPAC trial 12-month results which were presented for the first time at CX 2018
Ulf Teichgräber discusses the EffPAC trial 12-month results which were presented for the first time at CX 2018
Ulf Teichgräber, Jena, Germany
EVAS is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality
Marc Schermerhorn, Boston, United States
Podium 1st: Lutonix AV IDE interim 24 month update
Kate Steiner, Stevenage, United Kingdom
The sirolimus-eluting bioresorbable peripheral scaffold system (Prava; Elixir Medical) is designed to treat stenoses and occlusion in the superficial femoral artery. Prava was first implanted in October 2016 and will be clinically evaluated in the DESappear trial that has currently enrolled 21 patients at 11 […]
The first full results of the Early Venous Reflux Ablation (EVRA) ulcer study were presented at the Charing Cross Symposium yesterday. The presentation was accompanied by simultaneous publication in the New England Journal of Medicine after the session.
The randomised trial revealed that early endovenous ablation outperforms deferred […]
Majority of CX audience decides endovascular-first strategy for critical limb ischaemia is a concept without evidence
At the CX Great Debate held yesterday, vascular and endovascular surgery titans went head-to-head to debate the contentious topic “Endovascular-first strategy for critical limb ischaemia is a concept without evidence”. Arguing in favour of this motion were current Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) president Clement […]
Drug-coated balloon is “highly effective and safe” and shows outstanding clinical improvement for patients compared to an uncoated balloon
The 12-month results from the full clinical cohort of the EffPAC randomised controlled trial, were presented for the first time at the CX Symposium yesterday.
Target lesion revascularisation at 12 months was 1.3% (vs 17.7% in the plain angioplasty group, p<0.001). Primary patency at 12 months […]
The BATTLE trial comparing a drug-eluting stent (Zilver PTX, Cook) vs. a bare metal stent (Misago, Terumo) for the treatment of intermediate femoropopliteal lesions has failed to the show superiority of the paclitaxel-coated stent at one-year follow-up. The trial highlights a need for further direct […]
EVRA (Early Venous Reflux Ablation) Ulcer Trial presented for the first time at the Charing Cross Symposium
Alun Davies, EVRA chief investigator
Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
This year, there are four CX Workshops that offer a record number of hands-on workshop opportunities for those technical tips and tricks. The CX Venous Workshop—which has now been running for 10 years—has more than 80 workstations over two days. Last year, a staggering 1,100 people attended this workshop. Located in the Venous City, […]
This year’s annual China Endovascular Course (CEC; 2–5 November, Beijing, China) played host to the first CX@CEC session, in collaboration with the Charing Cross Symposium. Focused on complex aortic disease, this session featured a selection of international and Chinese experts […]
Ross Naylor at CX 2017
CX 2018 will close with the Acute Stroke CONTROVERSIES programme, which Ross Naylor—a member of the CX Programme Organising Board—promises will be a memorable session. The highlight will be five debates that will address a few “sacred cows” that arouse considerable controversy around […]
This year, CX celebrates 40 Years of Looking Forward. In this video, members of the CX Programme Organising Board and the CX Faculty explain why CX is not only unique but also provides vascular education “as it should be”! Register now for CX 2018!
CX 2018: “I believe delegates of CX 2018 should attend this presentation since the information provided by it will change their practice”
Juan Parodi (San Isidro, Argentina) gives an opening talk at CX 2018 “Reversal of lower extremity intermittent claudication and rest pain by hydration”. Come to CX on Day 1 to see if it as simple as that! Read the interview below for more information.
What are the limitations […]
Fabrizio Fanelli (Florence, Italy), CX Faculty, says that a key point about CX is that it – unlike other meetings – provides opportunities for discussion. He notes that the “active discussion” at the podium is “very important” for what you learn at the meeting. Register for CX 2018!
CX Faculty member Barry Katzen (Miami, United States) discusses how attending CX has affected his clinical practice and how he always is “universally losing” debates at CX! Register for CX 2018!
CX programme organising board member Alun Davies (Imperial College, London, United Kingdom) reviews how CX has changed in the last 24 years that he has been attending the symposium, his most memorable moments, and the one word he would use to describe the meeting. Register for CX 2018!
“One of the great things” about CX, according to CX Faculty member Kathleen Gibson (Bellevue, United States), is that it provides a “global perspective”. She says she “learns more and more” every time she attends. Register for CX 2018!
Rodney White (Torrance, United States), CX Faculty, says that CX has been a “very good forum” for not only new technologies but also how we adapt them to current practice. He notes that CX chairman Roger Greenhalgh has always been at the forefront of the latest developments. Register for CX 2018!
Lowell Kabnick (New York, United States), who is a CX Faculty member, describes how the CX Venous Workshop has gone from being a small intimate session to one that, while still intimate, is “really large and all inclusive”. He adds that he believes that it is the best he has seen.
Meryl Davis, member of the CX Abstracts Board, talks about the invaluable opportunity for senior and trainee vascular and endovascular clinicians to present at the CX Abstract sessions.
Over four days, nine abstract and poster sessions covered topics including thoracic aortic, abdominal aortic, peripheral arterial, acute stroke and vascular access. Over 220 abstracts were presented by trainee and senior clinicians from 34 different countries.
Fadi Taher (Vienna, Austria) won the best Trainee Clinician Abstract […]
Yesterday, the CX ilegx Interdisciplinary Consensus on Severe Ischaemia explored all stages of managing severe limb ischaemia—looking at diagnosis, diabetic patients, and treatment options. This is in keeping with the ilegx’s goal of reducing the rate of amputations and tissue loss related to ischaemia.
The first session of […]
Day Two of the CX Venous Workshop showcased the latest technological advancements in the deep venous arena. Building on the success of Wednesday’s first-ever CX Venous Edited Cases, yesterday’s workshop included four more standing-room only expert case presentations looking at venous endovascular stenting and thrombectomy, as well […]
In traditional fashion, the CX Innovation Showcase did the job of raising important questions and challenges in the ever-developing and changing vascular and endovascular field. Chairmen Stephen Greenhalgh (London, UK) and Andrew Holden (Auckland, New Zealand) put together a far-reaching programme covering innovation and regulatory challenges, the […]
Described as “one of the best” courses of its kind in Europe, this year’s CX Vascular Access Skills course took delegates through each stage of the patient journey, from diagnosis, to treatment, to complication response, through a series of 20 specialist training stations.
“Our main aim was […]
There was a special session convened yesterday at CX to appreciate and recognise Edward B Diethrich’s life, untrammelled spirit, masterful surgical competence, and enormous influence in the cardiovascular field. The internationally esteemed cardiovascular surgeon, inventor, and philanthropist died on 23 February 2017 at the age of 81. […]
Experts in the Thoracic Aortic Plenary sessions yesterday discussed cutting-edge topics that lack support from strong data, making consensus difficult to achieve. Many unanswered questions were raised such as which patients with thoracic disease should get early vs. late treatment; whether centralisation of aortic services would tackle […]
Twelve posters selected for presentation out of 68 posters displayed were carefully reviewed by the CX Abstract Board, who decided to award their prize of a free CX 2018 registration to Daniela Mazzaccaro (San Donato Milanese, Italy) for her poster, “Study and patient specific prediction of the […]
The CX Venous Workshop returned on Wednesday, bigger than ever before. With a new location in the Exhibition Hall and its own series of edited live case presentations, it continues to showcase innovative venous technology and offer delegates the chance to get hands-on with the latest advances […]
For the first time, Day One of this year’s CX Venous Workshop included two edited case presentations (CX Venous Edited Cases). The standing-room only session gave delegates the opportunity to watch two innovative devices in action and quiz experienced surgeons on their top procedural tips.
Chaired by […]
First-time data presentation from the SWAN (Screening Women for Abdominal aNeurysms) project was heard at CX yesterday. The study, which used simulation to evaluate whether inviting women to be screened for abdominal aortic aneurysm would have clinical benefit, or be cost-effective, revealed that such a programme would […]
A “podium first” presentation of very long-term follow-up data from the EVAR 2 trials suggests that endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) fails to improve all-cause mortality, but reduces aneurysm-related mortality compared to no treatment in abdominal aortic aneurysm patients who are physically ineligible for open repair. The data […]
For the third time in CX Symposium history the London-based audience was transported via live video feed to Germany for real-time case presentations. This year CX connected with Arne Schwindt and Theodosios Bisdas in Münster, Germany, for four live peripheral cases alternated with edited cases.
The first live […]
In Tuesday’s CX Congenital Vascular Malformations session, delegates heard about how approaching congenital vascular malformations with systematic pathways of care and classification systems can greatly assist physicians in achieving consistently successful positive outcomes.
Joe Brookes (London, UK) presented on classification of arteriovenous malformations, charting its “emerging […]
Remembering that “babies are not little adults” at CX Paediatric Vascular Emergencies and Case Presentations
The particular complexities of dealing with paediatric vessels were discussed in depth at Tuesday’s varied and informative CX Paediatric Vascular Emergencies and Case Presentations session. Covering topics as diverse as acute ischaemia from pre-term to infant and treatment for battlefield trauma in children, the session was one […]
Tuesday’s CX Aortic Edited Cases session featured exciting and engaging standing-room only case presentations, including Andrew Holden’s (Auckland, New Zealand) first-in-man implantation of the Ovation Alto (Endologix). Covering thoracic, juxtarenal and abdominal cases, the packed-out session explored innovative techniques, novel devices and a veritable array of practical […]
Delegates heard yesterday the results of the ATTRACT randomised controlled trial, which showed that the addition of catheter-based intervention to anticoagulation failed to significantly decrease the occurrence of post-thrombotic syndrome in deep vein thrombosis patients who received this treatment strategy when compared to its occurrence […]
Yesterday, delegates heard brand new data for drug-coated balloons (DCBs) in “wider use” scenarios such as challenging lesions; one-year results for a novel DCB; and late-breaking data on downstream coating effects of various DCBs. Still, 84% of the CX audience said “no” in response to the question: […]
The CX Venous Consensus Update—Plenary Programme took place on the first day of CX 2017 (Tuesday, 25 April). Stephen Black, member of the CX Programme Organising Board, summarises the take-home messages of this session.
The CX 2017 Peripheral Arterial Consensus Update Programme will focus on PATHWAYS OF CARE – whether to intervene, when and at what threshold, method and follow-up.
“Over three days (25–27 April) there will be a comprehensive coverage of the most important aspects of peripheral arterial intervention as well as some important new trial evidence being presented […]
Interventions in the aorta and manipulations in the aortic arch have become a “potential source of embolisation to the brain,” notes Roger Greenhalgh, Chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board. The Acute Stroke Consensus Plenary Programme will address the scope of this problem and PATHWAYS OF CARE to treat acute stroke from a multidisciplinary perspective including: […]
Vascular and endovascular thought-leaders Andrew Holden, Thomas Zeller, Stephen Black, Ian Franklin, Nicholas Inston, Matt Thompson and Giovanni Torsello share their views on what makes CX so special.
What makes CX so special for you? Tweet your comments @CXSymposium #CXisspecial
Don’t miss CX2017! Click here to […]
The CX 2017 Venous Consensus Update Programme will focus on PATHWAYS OF CARE – whether to intervene, when and at what threshold, method and follow-up, providing delegates with discussions on diagnosis and treatment options for the whole spectrum of venous disease.
Roger Greenhalgh (Chairman, CX Programme Organising Board) discusses with Stephen Black (member, CX Programme Organising […]
Roger Greenhalgh, Chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board, discusses the highlights of the Aortic Edited Cases session at CX 2017.
Complementing the Aortic Plenary Programme, experts in aortic surgery will discuss “tips and tricks” in thoracic, juxtarenal and abdominal aortic reconstructions and also ascending aorta and arch intervention, showing specific techniques and technologies with edited […]
Roger Greenhalgh, Chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board, discusses the highlights of the Thoracic Aortic Consensus Plenary Programme at CX 2017.
Key topics to be discussed include:
- Are the types A and B dissection terms satisfactory?
- Is it time to revisit whether complicated means complicated for type B dissections?
- How does the treatment of complex […]
Roger Greenhalgh, Chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board, discusses the highlights of the Abdominal Aortic Consensus Plenary Programme at CX 2017.
Key topics include:
- Does operating below the threshold of 5.5cms save lives?
- What should you do in the follow-up period after EVAR? How dangerous are type II endoleaks?
- What are the latest results of endovascular […]
What are the special features of the CX Symposium? Matt Thompson, Co-chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board, highlights “a plethora of educational opportunities” including presentation of new evidence, key messages voiced by opinion leaders, debate and case-based discussion amongst others.
What makes CX so special for you? Tweet your […]
What are the special features of the CX Symposium? Co-director, CX Vascular Access Course Nicholas Inston (Consultant Surgeon and Clinical Lead for Renal Surgery and Transplantation at Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham, UK) considers the Charing Cross Symposium “brings everyone together” from a worldwide basis and highlights the growing interest in […]
What are the special features of the CX Symposium? CX Programme Board member Ian Franklin (Consultant Vascular Surgeon at London Vascular Clinic, London, UK) notes that at CX “the audience is in charge”. “We acknowledge that participants are experts in their own right” and therefore have priority […]
What are the special features of the CX Symposium? CX Programme Board member Stephen Black (Consultant Vascular Surgeon at Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital, London, UK) highlights “Access to Innovation” and a broad range of modalities as well as the ability to engage closely with the
What are the special features of the CX Symposium? CX Programme Board member Thomas Zeller (Professor of Angiology at Albert-Ludwigs University of Freiburg and Head of Department of Angiology at Universitäts – Herzzentrum Freiburg, Bad Krozingen, Germany) considers “the Discussion Culture” and exchange between the CX Faculty and the audience unique.
CX Faculty members discussed “Life after EVAR 1” at LINC (24‒27 January 2017, Leipzig, Germany). Frans Moll, Co-chairman CX Programme Organising Board, summarises the take-home messages from the session.
Continue the discussion on “Life after EVAR 1” at CX 2017 ( 25‒28 April, Olympia Grand, London, UK). Register here […]
What are the special features of the CX Symposium? CX Programme Organising Board member Andrew Holden (Associate Professor of Radiology at Auckland University School of Medicine and Director of Interventional Services at Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand) highlights the discussion, debate and “a drive to get consensus”.
Pasha Normahani (Imperial Vascular Unit, Imperial Academic Health Science Centre, London, UK) has been an attendee at the Charing Cross (CX) Symposium for over seven years. In 2016, he presented for the first time at the CX Abstract sessions and was awarded with a Certificate of Merit for his research in peripheral arterial disease. In […]
Moll receives the gown and deed from the Minister of Public Health of Thailand
Frans Moll, professor of Vascular Surgery at the University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, has received an Honorary Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons of Thailand (RCST) during the College’s Annual […]
The CX Programme Organising Board and CX Abstract Board congratulate the senior and trainee clinicians who presented their abstracts or posters at the Charing Cross Symposium 2016. In total, over 200 abstracts and posters from 31 countries were presented. Over four days, nine abstract sessions covered vascular […]
Ian Loftus, Co-chairman CX Abstract Board, reviews the highlights of this year’s CX Abstract Presentations session. He emphasises the quality of the work submitted and how relevant it is for young and senior clinicians to present their research at the Charing Cross Symposium.
The teams of researchers and principal investigators who collected and analysed the data for the Individual Patient Data meta-analysis and EVAR 1 trial presented the data in the session titled “EVAR follow-up and avoidance of secondary sac rupture and death.”
The meta-analysis of Individual Patient Data from […]
According to chair Stephen Greenhalgh, yesterday’s CX Innovation Showcase provided a “glimpse into the future” regarding emerging technologies that address current unmet therapeutic needs. The showcase, which Greenhalgh described as “action packed”, featured presentations on next-generation devices for thoracic aneurysms, abdominal aneurysms, and for peripheral arterial disease.
Focusing on superficial venous issues, yesterday’s CX Venous Workshop invited delegates to discover new techniques, with a hands-on approach, and speak to experts across the different fields of phlebological practice. Covering techniques from endothermal ablation to diagnostic venous ultrasound, the session was a “unique opportunity” for […]
The new CX Vascular Access Course began yesterday with a masterclass on vascular access-induced ischaemic steal syndrome. Exploring the mechanisms and pathophysiology of ischaemia in vascular access, the ultimate target of the course was to start the production of a consensus document on the contested subject.
As part of this year’s Peripheral Arterial Main Programme, Charing Cross yesterday hosted a series of live cases from Münster, Germany. There were also a number of edited cases presented by Faculty from across Europe.
The session was chaired by Michael Jaff (Boston, USA), and moderated by Giovanni […]
Yesterday’s Peripheral Arterial Challenges session saw a host of new developments being presented and a lift for drug-coated balloons (DCBs), swirling flow stents and drug-eluting stents.
The day began by trying to avoid any intervention by exercise, best medical treatment and smoking cessation. Presenters showed that […]
Two presentations yesterday in the Venous Challenges Main Programme session have demonstrated the value of dedicated venous stents, with interim results from two studies in patients with symptomatic iliofemoral venous outflow obstruction showing symptom improvement 12-months post stent placement.
Feasibility data from the VIRTUS study were […]
The fourth CX Meets Latin America session took place yesterday, highlighting vascular and endovascular techniques used in Latin America. With time for audience discussion following every talk, the session covered not only the technical aspects of different interventional solutions, but the economic context behind them.
“For neurogenic thoracic […]
Yesterday’s Vascular Malformations course began with a talk by Andreas Saleh (Munich, Germany) on four basic principles for diagnostic imaging. According to his first principle, clinicians should make sure to take a thorough patient history, and perform clinical examinations and colour-coded duplex sonography. Saleh then advised that […]
“None of us have the full range of skills and experience” to deal with paediatric vascular pathologies, session finds
Yesterday’s CX Paediatric Vascular Issues session tackled some of the specific implications for vascular surgery on paediatric patients. The session was dominated by a discussion of the challenges presented by the different vascular pathologies of children and adults. Faculty and audience members raised […]
Now that non-thrombotic iliac vein lesions (NIVLs) are more frequently recognised on modern imaging modalities, they are beginning to trigger a paradigm shift in standard vein work whereby there is now increasing emphasis on making sure that these patients do not have significant deep venous obstruction which must be taken into account when planning treatment. […]
CX is looking for paediatric vascular management dilemmas to encourage audience discussion at the CX Paediatric Vascular Issues course.
Clinicians are invited to submit paediatric cases concerning acute or chronic limb ischaemia, trauma, mid-aortic syndrome, cancer resection and vascular malformations.
Cases should be submitted in Powerpoint (maximum three slides or the equivalent to a three-minute presentation). The material should be limited […]
“The Peripheral Arterial Programme at the Charing Cross Symposium in 2016 is really exciting; it combines the hot topics in the field with evidence, opinion and discussion,” says Andrew Holden (Auckland, New Zealand), member of the CX Programme Organising Board. He overviews key areas to be discussed on Tuesday 26 April including the management of […]
In 2016, the Charing Cross Venous Programme will run on the four days of the Symposium (26–29 April) with the Main Programme for the first time on day 1, followed by the CX Venous Workshop on days 2 and 3, and the CX Venous Abstract Presentations on day 4. Ian Franklin (London, UK), member of […]
Stephen Black (London, UK), member of the CX Programme Organising Board, discusses the highlights of this year’s Deep Venous section of the CX Venous Challenges Day.
The Charing Cross Symposium is launching the new CX Vascular Access Course to be held at Olympia Grand, London, UK. The three-day course (27–29 April 2016) will provide both experts and those new to the field with invaluable insights into the challenges currently facing haemodialysis vascular access, and the methods used to overcome them. […]
“There has never been a more exciting expectation of what we have for this year in the aortic area at CX,” says Roger Greenhalgh, chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board. Results from the Individual Patient Data meta-analysis of the four randomised controlled trials on endovascular aneurysm repair against open repair (EVAR 1, DREAM, OVER […]
In 2016, the Charing Cross Symposium will offer delegates a new session dedicated to exploring the challenges in acute stroke treatment. The half-day session will take place on Friday 29 April at Olympia Grand, London, UK.
Discussing the rationale for incorporating this session at this year’s Symposium, […]
Ross Naylor (Leicester, UK), member of the CX Programme Organising Board, discusses the biggest challenges of treating acute stroke and the role of a multidisciplinary team in this setting.
What do you think are the biggest challenges treating acute stroke?
Improving patient awareness about the need to […]
Stephen Black (London, UK), member of the CX Programme Organising Board, speaks about the current challenges in the treatment of deep venous disease, key developments in the field, and factors influencing outcomes in venous stenting.
What are the major challenges treating deep venous disease?
We need to […]
Mark Whiteley (London, UK), member of the CX Programme Organising Board, discusses various techniques for superficial venous disease treatment and their applications to specific patients. The latest evidence on this area will be discussed at the CX Venous Challenges Day (26 April 2016).
CX Venous Challenges session to explore when to use and when not to use technologies in venous disease treatment
This year, the CX Venous Challenges Programme will explore the use of various technologies and techniques for the treatment of superficial and deep venous disease, with emphasis on the latest evidence of when and in which patients they should be used. Ian Franklin (London, UK), member of the CX Programme Organising Board, notes: […]
The management of the superficial femoral artery be at the centre of the discussions at the CX Peripheral Arterial Challenges Day of the Charing Cross Symposium 2016. Treatment strategies, depending on lesion type and length, will be analysed and there will be special emphasis on the status and […]
CX 2015 Peripheral Arterial Live Cases.
Following the successful first year of the CX Peripheral Arterial Live Cases, CX 2016 will continue to offer delegates the opportunity to expand the discussion of key topics from the CX Peripheral Arterial Main Programme by learning techniques of how to […]
With the aim to promote the best possible care of the ischaemic lower limb to reduce the number of major amputations, the CX ilegx Collaboration Day will offer delegates an overview of the latest treatment strategies, particularly in patients with diabetes, one of the main […]
Type B dissection.
It is accepted that the prognosis and outcomes of type B dissection are more favourable if the false lumen is thrombosed. According to Roger Greenhalgh, chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board, this has been taken by some vascular specialists to imply that the false […]
Principal investigators: Roger Greenhalgh, Jan Blankensteijn, Jean-Pierre Becquemin and Frank Lederle.
An Individual Patient Data (IPD) meta-analysis of the randomised controlled trials—EVAR 1, DREAM, ACE and OVER—will show the “highest level of evidence” of endovascular aneurysm repair against open repair for abdominal aortic aneurysms, according to Roger Greenhalgh, […]
Fifteen-year follow-up of the Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR) 1 Trial will be presented for the first time at CX 2016. The EVAR 1 Trial was the first EVAR vs. open repair abdominal aortic aneurysm trial to be conducted and is the first to reach 15 […]
Ian Franklin, a member of the CX Programme Organising Board and director of the CX Venous Workshop, speaks about new technologies for the treatment of varicose veins and about how deep venous interventions have been incorporated to the CX Venous Workshop.
Janet Powell, Imperial College, London, UK, is interviewed about the 12-month results of the IMPROVE trial, presented for the first time at CX 2015. The study compares open repair and an endovascular strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.
Colin Bicknell, London, UK, interviews Michael Dake, Stanford, USA, discussing the use of, and early results for, the new GORE TAG Thoracic Branch Endoprosthesis device.
Reconstruction of the ascending aorta – Interview with Rodney White
Interview for CX 2015
Richard Gibbs, member of the CX Abstract Board, speaks about the 2015 CX Abstract Sessions, their importance for this year’s Charing Cross Symposium, and how these sessions can help spotting new talent.
The CX Imaging Day provided a comprehensive programme of state-of-the-art imaging that is applied to the aorta, carotid, peripheral arteries and veins, including planning and using hybrid theatres, robotics, 3D fusion and guidance, intravascular ultrasound, perfusion angiography, cone beam computed tomography and carbon dioxide angiography.
This year’s Imaging Day was divided into two parts, giving attendees the opportunity for maximum learning and understanding. The morning session saw the presentation of the latest data in the Olympia Room Learning Centre, while in the afternoon, various imaging providers, including Philips, GE Healthcare, Siemens, Hansen Medical, Volcano and Ziehm Imaging, hosted “Ask the Expert” workshops at their stands in the Exhibition Hall. These workshops allow attendees to interact in small groups with the experts and to look at the imaging systems and tools, providing them with a unique view of the technology.
GE Healthcare took the opportunity to show the flow of its solutions from sizing to the 3D fusion from table side. There was also focus on dose optimisation management.
Alejandra Gonzalez, European marketing product manager for Interventional Systems at GE explained, “We provided an educational framework where we raised awareness of the key elements that physicians need to take care of in order to reduce the dose or optimise the dose strategy. We wanted to do it in an educational way and at the same time a more interactive way as well.”
Guiding the presentations and providing personal input were physician experts Stephan Haulon (Lille, France) and Adrien Hertault (Lille, France). Haulon explained what took place saying, “we showed the attendees a couple of cases that were sized on a workstation so they had the ability to actually manipulate the workstation and then we had them do a fusion registration to show them how straightforward a technology it is and how user friendly it is. We also had a big focus on dose exposure which is a real concern for vascular surgeons today because we are doing more and more radiation exposure procedures. We had a quiz which stirred a lot of questions and debates. So this was actually quite passionate and really interesting.”
Commenting on the workshop Haulon added, “There was a lot of interaction and those people would never stand up in a large room to ask a question, whereas here they were very enthusiastic about sharing their comments and asking us for more details so I think it was a very valuable workshop.”
Hansen Medical presented the Magellan robotic system which helps physicians navigate through the vasculature. Joe Guido, vice president marketing and business development explained that the system is designed to “make the procedure more efficient and more predictable for physicians and also allows physicians to stay out of the field of radiation. The robotic system will drive robotic catheters that you can shape and control without having to do exchanges for other catheters.”
Physician experts Barry Katzen (Miami, USA) and Celia Riga (London, UK) presented their experiences with intravascular robotics and the Magellan robotic system.
Guido commented on the workshop saying that many physicians are very curious about the technology and the practical applications and how it can benefit them and their practice. “An expert is much more accessible at the stand and it is a much more intimate environment. It encourages physicians to listen to the presentation and then speak to the experts and ask one-on-one questions,” he said.
Philips presented its technology and had physician experts Frank Vermassen (Ghent, Belgium) and Jim Reekers (Amsterdam, Netherlands) on hand to answer queries from physician-attendees. Philips demonstrators showcased the company’s technology including the VesselNavigator, a live image guidance solution; 2D Perfusion; Veradius Unity, a C-arm with flat detector; and gave advice on considerations when purchasing a hybrid room.
Commenting on the Veradius Unity, Philips demonstrator Marianne Kwakernaat said that the technology was developed, “to help get a more united team in the OR because there was a lot of frustration between doctors and operators who did not understand each other, so we made a lot of improvements to our systems to first, make it more easy to communicate, so we added some tools, and second, we made a new touchscreen which is very interactive and easy to use.”
She added that the workshop was a good vehicle to give the physicians the opportunity to see the products and figure out which one is most suitable to their hospital and their uses.
Siemens showcased the complete workflow for EVAR procedures, starting with the preoperational CT scan. The company also gave attendees the opportunity to see the PURE software technology for the Artis zeego.
Dirk Sunderbrink, business manager, Therapy Systems at Siemens described the system saying, “It allows the vascular surgeon 2D and 3D registration with much less dose and in much less time than with previous systems. This PURE software guides the vascular surgeon through the procedure automatically to have fusion imaging available to guide them through the procedures.” He added, “The teaching opportunity is important to us because there are presentations, but it is much easier to really see it hands-on.”
Dittmar Böckler (Heidelberg, Germany) was on hand providing an expert position, giving attendees the opportunity to ask questions about the Siemens technology.
Volcano showcased its intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) system, which provides detailed and accurate measurements of lumen and vessel size, plaque area and volume, and the location of key anatomical landmarks.
Physician expert Fabrizio Fanelli (Rome, Italy) was present to give his personal perspective of the technology and to answer attendees’ queries. At the stand, demonstrations were done showing real time sizing and procedure assessment with reduced exposure and contrast.
Volcano demonstrator Fiorella De Nicolais explained that the IVUS technology helps differentiate the four plaque types: fibrous, fibro-fatty, necrotic core and dense calcium.
She added that, “Not everyone knows IVUS, or the way it works or the benefits of using it, so the workshop is about getting more details and learning how the technology works.”
Ziehm Imaging featured its mobile hybrid room concept which consists of a mobile C-arm that has all the imaging capabilities of a fixed, installed hybrid room—high power imaging, a liquid cooling system, flat panel technology, fully motorised movements.
Visitors to the stand heard presentations from experts Wolfgang Keller (Nuremberg, Germany) and Peter Goverde (Antwerp, Belgium), who spoke about Ziehm’s mobile interventional suite and their clinical experiences with a mobile hybrid OR.
Summarising, Axel Kouril from Ziehm Imaging said, “As opposed to fixed installed hybrid ORs which are very expensive and have additional installations costs of enforcing the floor or the ceiling, and lead protection, this system has the size of a normal mobile C-arm and the imaging capabilities of a fixed installed system (up to 90%), but it is cheaper, it is mobile, and more flexible.”
The second day of the CX Venous Workshop was held yesterday on the Upper Level of the Gallery, rounding off a busy week in which more than 950 people visited over the two days—a new record for the Workshop. Once again the educational stations, of which there were more than 30, were packed with delegates looking forward to one-on-one time with the distinguished Charing Cross Symposium faculty.
As was the case on Wednesday, the “Endovenous Ablation Village” was running, showcasing all available techniques to ablate truncal veins, along with practical training sessions teaching ultrasound-guided cannulation, catheter positioning and tumescent anaesthesia.
While the first day of the workshop focused largely on varicose veins and superficial venous issues, yesterday went deeper into the vein by examining acute deep vein thrombosis, intravascular ultrasound and deep venous stenting. Every station saw a significant amount of traffic, with delegates showing a keen interest in the intravascular ultrasound and deep vein thrombosis stations.
Ian Franklin, one of the course directors, said “Today we have had a big change of interest to deep venous—treatments of deep vein thrombosis, deep vein stenting, intravascular ultrasound, pelvic vein embolisation and so on—and it is packed. There is not a single empty training station, everyone has good interest and it is sustained. We deliberately have this flexible format so people can come and go—if they find they have a gap in the programme they can come and join us and make sure their time is used profitably.”
As the workshop drew to a close for another year, thoughts turned towards 2016. “Every year we change the event and it has never been the same as it was before, so next year will definitely be different,” said Franklin. “One thing I would consider is bringing in recorded live cases of all the new techniques we are showcasing to complement the hands-on demonstrations, using screens and some commentaries.”
With the workshop in its seventh year, there is always the opportunity to resurrect popular aspects of previous years’ Workshops. For example, Franklin suggested, “I would also like to bring back interactive discussion of complicated and difficult cases. That was always very popular, especially when you had a series of well-known experts all discussing how best to handle a case. Quite often we are showcasing different techniques and then once you have learnt that technique there comes the discussion of when to use it, so I think those case-based discussions complement the learning too.”
Day 2 offered stations covering: thermal (laser), thermal (radiofrequency ablation), non-thermal, practical training stations, valves, vascular ultrasound training simulator, venous malformations, pelvic venous imaging, pelvic vein embolisation, acute deep vein thrombosis, caval filters, follow-up protocols, air plethysmography, intravenous ultrasound and deep vein stenting.
Alma Lasers was exhibiting its VascuLife minimally invasive varicose vein laser treatment with robotic pullback. Having received CE mark and FDA approval recently, the VascuLife station had plenty of visitors looking to learn about the robotic pullback capability, which standardises pullback rate safely and allows a surgeon to focus on other tasks while pullback is completed. Shira Doron, marketing director at Alma Lasers, believes that the CX Venous Workshop gave companies and physicians a chance to interact and share information in an informal and purely scientific setting. She said, “Physicians view this as their professional platform as opposed to booths, which may feel like more of a marketing platform. They come here and it is all about the device and what it can do. You do not need to see movies or brochures—it is all about the technology.”
The new ArtVentive EOS device also was highlighted yesterday. Krzysztof Pyra (Lublin, Poland) spoke his experience with the EOS device treating ovarian veins for pelvic congestion syndrome. In addition, treatment of spermatic vein varicoceles were also presented. Pyra discussed his approach to diagnosing and treating pelvic vein incompetence. According to Pyra, of particular note was the immediacy of occlusion with the EOS device and shorter procedure times. Pyra uses a combination of EOS and sclerosant to occlude the pelvic veins.
Michael Dake, Stanford, USA, presented the initial results with the GORE TAG Thoracic Branch Endoprosthesis (TBE), a new device for treatment of the aortic arch at CX yesterday.
Dake, Stanford, USA, presented the initial results with the GORE TAG Thoracic Branch Endoprosthesis (TBE), a new device for treatment of the aortic arch.
Dake told delegates that the GORE TAG TBE is a single branch device that consists of an aortic component, a side branch component and an optional aortic extender. The side branch component is delivered through a sheath and docks into the aortic component portal which allows for perfusion of a single arch branch vessel. The device is currently being studied in a zone 2 (left subclavian) feasibility study and a zone 0/1 (brachiocephalic and left common carotid) early feasibility study in the USA.
Currently, there are 20 patients (10 men and 10 women, mean age 75.4 years) successfully enrolled in zone 2 and one patient enrolled in zone 0/1. All 20 patients in zone 2 had successful access and deployment of the TBE device with the side branch component patent at the end of the procedure. Additionally, all side branch components remain patent. At one month, there have been no reported patient deaths or stroke. The left ankle brachial index (1.1) remains the same from pre-procedure to one month. There were no endoleaks that required reintervention.
The first two zone 0 patients were treated with the TBE device at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center by Michel Makaroun, and at the Mayo Clinic by Gustavo Oderich. The protocol requires the patient to be treated in two phases with phase 1 revascularisation and phase 2 endovascular procedure. In phase 1, the patient underwent cervical debranching of the arch via a carotid to carotid bypass followed by a left carotid to left subclavian transposition. The proximal left common carotid and left subclavian artery was suture ligated.
Dake spoke about the patient treated about Makaroun and said the patient tolerated the procedure well without any neurological complications. The patient was assessed and deemed stable to proceed to phase 2 after 24 hours. In phase 2, the aortic component was advanced and deployed at the target location near the brachiocephalic artery. The sheath was advanced without difficulty into the portal of the aortic component into the brachiocephalic artery. The side branch component was advanced and deployed. Final arteriography showed excellent flow into the arch vessels, aneurysm exclusion, and complete apposition of the aortic component both proximally and distally.
Dake concluded: “These early results are promising with 100% technical success and side branch patency along with 0% death or stroke at one month.”
Fear of being sued may force healthcare providers into improving access to diabetic foot care services
Although there is strong evidence that multidisciplinary foot care services can reduce the number of amputations associated with diabetic foot, access to such services remains patchy. Cliff Shearman (Southampton, UK) believes that healthcare providers are not doing enough to improve access. He says that it may take litigation from patients, who have lost a foot through poor care, to persuade healthcare providers to increase access, which he says would be “a great pity” because it should be “evidence and enthusiasm” that drives change.
Speaking at the CX ilegx Collaboration Day yesterday, Shearman explained that early diagnosis and prompt treatment can help to reduce the risk of amputation in patients with diabetic foot. He added that there is “strong evidence” to show that well-organised diabetic foot teams, working across primary and secondary care, can ensure that patients receive the care they need. Shearman noted that research indicates that such teams can the reduce rate of amputation by up to 80%. Furthermore, he reported that having a foot care team at his hospital (Southampton) has resulted in costs savings of £1,695,600 and a reduction in total beds of 5,662.
However, in the UK, only around 50% of people with diabetes receive the recommended nine health checks, including foot examination, and up to one in five hospitals do not have a diabetic foot protection team. Shearman commented: “I think healthcare professionals are now much more interested in the need to provide good care to reduce the amputation rates, but there is a lack of drive from government and healthcare providers to push this forward. At the moment, in the UK, we do not have core criteria for commissioning diabetic foot care services—all we can really do is to try to emulate those who have created good services,” he said.
According to Shearman, there are three steps to encouraging healthcare providers to take steps to increase access to foot care services: enthusiasm and evidence, naming and shaming, and litigation. He claimed that we are now the stage of “naming and shaming”—ie, showing how amputations rates can be “staggeringly reduced” with timely access and multidisciplinary team working. “If that does not work, it will be litigation that drives change. The number of ligation cases is rising enormously because people are recognising that they have not received good care and therefore, are taking action against their healthcare provider. It will be a great pity if litigation is what prompts change as it should be enthusiasm and evidence.”
Michael Edmonds (London, UK), who (like Shearman) is a course director of the CX ilegx Collaboration Day, agrees that poorly organised services—rather than a lack of effective treatment—are a cause of patients with diabetic foot having to undergo amputation. He said one of the key goals of ilegx, which was started in 2008, was to “encourage interdisciplinary collaboration that spans the primary and secondary services, and develop and implement best practice approach to save legs.”
Shearman told CX Daily News: “I hope delegates who attend the course will go away fired up with the knowledge that they can make a difference [by being enthusiastic about improving care and encouraging multidisciplinary working] and that they can help their centres save money as well as improve outcomes. Improving the care of patients with diabetic foot is not about hiring lots of new people or lots of new technology. It is about working as a team.”
Treatment options for diabetic foot
During the CX ilegx Collaboration Day, there were several talks about treatment options for patients with diabetic foot. Toby Richards (London, UK) spoke about a novel wound therapy called CelluTome (KCI). He said that this involved taking an epidermal graft off a patient’s leg, without any form of anaesthetic, by applying local heat to create microblisters that were then transferred onto a wound.
To assess the system, Richards and colleagues evaluated its use in a case series of 30 patients who were candidates for split skin grafts—most of whom had chronic wounds, with Richards noting: “so, we are not picking winners” (ie. patients with wounds that had a better chance of complete healing).
He stated that the “most important thing” was that the average time for donor site healing was 5.43±1.54 days, the mean pain score was 1.33±0.95, and the Vancouver Scar Scale was 0 for all cases at six weeks after therapy.
Richards reported that 17 patients had complete healing (12 in under six week and four in under eight weeks) and that seven grafts failed due to infection, adding “one of the problems we had is that the graft looks like a biofilm at two weeks and a nurse who was not familiar would come along and think it needed cleaning, so there goes your graft. While you get used to this look, you need to leave the dressing on as long as possible, and then you will start to get good results.” He concluded that it was a novel technology that was “feasible” and it that “certainly does work”, saying: “as with all new technologies, it should be tested in a proper trial before we introduce it into normal practice. Therefore, we will be evaluating it in a randomised controlled trial.”
Jennifer Tremlett (London, UK) also spoke about wound care techniques, including platelet rich plasma, larvae therapy, and negative wound pressure. Like Shearman and Edmonds, Tremlett advocated “multidisciplinary working” because it “provides better outcomes”. Furthermore, Dean Huang (London, UK), who spoke about advances in distal endovascular surgery, said that the need for collaborative working and rapid access to diagnosis and intervention were “probably two of the most important points” in his talk.
“We can solve the limitations of carotid stenting with a micro-mesh stent and its sustained anti-embolic action”
Micro-mesh stents and sustained anti-embolic action to reduce cerebral embolisation may contribute to solving the remaining limitations of carotid stenting, according to Alberto Cremonesi (Cotignola, Italy), who spoke at CX 2015 (28 April–1 May, London, UK).
Cremonesi examined the potential for micro-mesh stents to improve existing carotid artery stenting outcomes.
He told delegates that the correct technique for performing a carotid artery stenting was to conduct a pre-procedural evaluation for common carotid engagement, to select the correct stent and to select and manage an embolic protection device.
Cremonesi said that it is already known that “not all plaques are the same”, and that “carotid artery stenting and carotid endarterectomy are —and will remain—emboli-generating procedures”. He told the audience that it is possible to give sustained anti-embolic over time using specific stents.
When a poorly-selected stent is used for carotid artery stenting, intra-strut prolapse can occur resulting in post-procedural embolic events. The difficulty then, commented Cremonesi, is that “lesions in the carotid arteries are often anatomically and morphologically very challenging. For this reason, plaque coverage can play an important role.”
The use of stenting strategies such as open cell, closed cell and hybrid geometry can be considered “time honoured”. Now, vascular specialists have access micro-mesh double layer carotid stents (Terumo, InspireMD and Gore), said Cremonesi, whose personal experience is with the Roadsaver carotid stent from Terumo.
Cremonesi admitted that “In terms of data, we do not have very much at the moment” for the use of micro-mesh. Some data do exist from the CARENET all-comer trial, in which 30 patients saw “very good” outcomes without any neurological events up to five months follow-up. A further multicentre trial with 100 patients, CLEAR-ROAD, is also beginning, though Cremonesi said that he did “not want to conclude anything” about it yet.
“We are probably changing the paradigms in carotid artery stenting, because with these micro-mesh stents and their sustained anti-embolic action, we can solve the remaining limitation of carotid stenting,” ended Cremonesi.
Discussing his presentation with the audience, Cremonesi mentioned that “two-thirds of the embolic complications are in the post-procedural phase.” When session chairman Roger Greenhalgh asked about the cause for this later onset of complications, Cremonesi told him that it was due to the stent interacting with and cutting the plaque in the carotid artery, which can occur during the phase and even up to 48 hours later. Cremonesi made it clear that this problem is one of the carotid artery, rather than one associated with the aortic arch.
There have been vast technological advances that have enabled the final frontier of the aorta, the diseased ascending aorta and arch, to be treated by completely endovascular means. Simultaneously, there have also been advances in open repair. Also, with perioperative stroke remaining a principal risk with TEVAR, the high incidence of cerebral embolisation with the procedure is a problem that needs wider recognition, delegates heard yesterday.
In a panel discussion during the session on interventions for ascending aorta and aortic arch, Roger Greenhalgh, chairman of the CX Organising Board, pressed the panel to comment on patient mortality after open repair and endovascular repair.
The mortality rate for open repair is around 3%, even when there is involvement of the aortic valve, said Stephen Large, Cambridge, UK. With endovascular repair, it approaches 10%, said Dittmar Böckler, Heidelberg, Germany. Subsequently, 65% of the CX 2015 audience voted against the motion that the heyday of open aortic surgery is over.
Richard Gibbs, London, UK, told CX delegates yesterday that there was a high rate of embolisation during arch and descending thoracic intervention that could be observed as silent cerebral infarction on new imaging techniques. The results from the study he presented showed that there is a 70% silent cerebral infarction on MRI and that there is postoperative neurocognitive decline in patients with silent cerebral infarctions.
Gibbs made the point that stroke, which was caused by cerebral embolisation, was a relatively crude surrogate, but a clinically relevant measure of microembolisation. The stroke rate for TEVAR ranges between 3% and 6%, said Gibbs, with embolisation being caused by the passage of stiff wires, soft wires, devices and manipulation within the diseased aorta. The risk factors are the atheromatous burden within the aorta and using a proximal landing zone. Hypotension is also very important, he said.
“A much subtler way of looking at microembolisation is with diffusion-weighted MR that detects acute ischaemia that is due to cerebral oedema. These lesions appear within 24 hours of the insult and last up to 14 days, and show as hyperintense bright areas that are easy to recognise,” Gibbs noted.
Gibbs then showed diffusion-weighted cerebral MR images from a patient who had silent cerebral infarctions but did not develop signs or symptoms of clinical stroke following TEVAR. “Therefore what we see here is silent stroke, or silent cerebral infarction, which is imaging evidence of cerebral infarction, without a history of acute neurological dysfunction attributable to the lesion,” Gibbs said.
He qualified that he believed the term silent cerebral infarction is a misnomer because there is an increasing body of evidence that suggests that silent cerebral infarction is associated with depression, dementia, Alzheimer’s, future increased risk of stroke and mortality.
Published literature shows a significant rate of cerebral infarction with various different interventions involving the arch and unsurprisingly transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), which is the biggest device and causes the most cerebral infarction, he explained.
“When it comes to TEVAR, there is very little literature, and one paper suggests that there is a 63% risk of cerebral infarction with the procedure,” said Gibbs referring to the data from 19 patients from Kahlert et al published in the Annals of Thoracic Surgery in 2014 that found diffusion-weighted MR evidence of cerebral infarction after TEVAR in 12 of 19 (63%) undergoing the procedure for a variety of indications. There was no overt clinical stroke seen in these patients.
Gibbs then presented the pilot work done by his team on the rates of silent cerebral infarctions during TEVAR, the presence of silent cerebral infarction on MR and whether there are neurocognitive changes afterwords.
“We included 44 patients undergoing TEVAR and looked at the burden of atheroma within the arch of the descending aorta based on the American Heart Association grading method. The patients had bidirectional transcranial Doppler, which is a direct measure of cerebal microembolisation. “A subset of these patients had pre-and postoperative MR looking for more evidence of infarction (23 patients). Another subset had neurocognitive assessment before the intervention, after the intervention in hospital and eight weeks later to see if any changes persist,” said Gibbs.
Forty one TEVAR procedures involving the arch and descending aorta were performed for a variety of pathologies. Of these 21 were standard and 20 were complex involving the use of branches, scallops or adjunctive surgical procedures. “We had fairly proximal landing zones,” he noted.
“Looking at the specific procedural steps, we see clearly that stent graft deployment carries the most significant rate of embolisation,” said Gibbs. He then showed a transcranial Doppler during stent graft deployment where a burst of cerebral embolisation was visible in both hemispheres. “The highest activity of cerebral embolisation was when the device was deployed. Increased embolisation was associated with the left hemisphere more than the right; stent manipulation more than wire and catheter passage; a higher grade of atheroma compared to a lower grade (so a higher burden of disease); chronic rather than acute disease. Patients who had a stroke had the highest rate of embolisation. A proximal landing zone rather than distal one had a higher rate of cerebral embolisation. In the group where we looked for evidence of silent cerebral infarction, 70% (16/23) of our patients had this, mostly in the left hemisphere and mostly in the territory served by the middle cerebral artery. Ten per cent of these patients had a clinical stroke,” said Gibbs.
When the researchers selected out the data for older patients from the group, they found that executive function diminished and stayed down at eight weeks, memory diminished and manual dexterity got worse.
“There is a significantly high rate of cerebral embolisation during TEVAR and the more proximal you go, the worse it is. There is a definitive and radiologically proven damage to the brain and these patients do pay a price for this. We have to be thinking about how we can intervene [either pharmacologically or by using devices],” concluded Gibbs.
Scarcity of literature on proximal landing zone and TEVAR outcomes
Dittmar Böckler stated that while the relationship between the proximal landing zone and outcome was well-documented in the EVAR literature, there were very few publications focused on how the proximal landing zone influences patient outcomes with TEVAR in the arch, and noted the low level of evidence.
“There are no randomised controlled trial data on open versus endovascular approaches and there are no meta-analyses. The data come from limited European registry data from the Relay registry, Traviata registry and European CTAG registry,” he noted.
Böckler drew attention to the fact that there was no consensus in the literature and guidelines on the appropriate proximal neck length and that this variation was reflected in the instructions for use from manufacturers, as the target landing zone is depending on stent graft diameter.
“The appropriate proximal landing zone for TEVAR is not defined. Arch type and atheroma seem to influence stroke risk during TEVAR in the arch. “There is strong need for new refined conformable devices in the arch including branched stent graft technology,” Böckler said.
Value of medication
Frank Lederle, Minneapolis, USA, speaking on the value of medication such as statins before aortic arch catheterisation, stated that there was very little trustworthy randomised controlled trial data to go by. He reviewed evidence that bears on whether perioperative statins or aspirin benefit patients having a thoracic aortic procedure. “Analyses showing benefit of perioperative use rely on weak and doubtful studies. When it comes to aspirin, there are no data on perioperative benefit, but there is an increased major and minor bleeding,” he said.
Lederle drew attention to the fact that many patients with aortic aneurysm have arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease and should be on statins and aspirin long-term. “There is no good evidence that statins or aspirin improve long-term outcomes for patients with aortic arch patients without arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease, so some of these patients will not be on these medications. Questions remain on when whether or not patients are on them long-term and whether they should be used perioperatively,” he said.
Stephen Large, Cambridge, UK, a cardiac surgeon, outlined the case for open surgery in interventions for ascending and arch of the aorta, the current gold standard approach.
Large noted that not operating resulted in a “dreadful attrition”. “We know that there is an increase in attrition correlated with the increase in aneurysm size, the hingepoint being around 5.5cm in the ascending and arch, which is associated with an acceleration in terms of stroke, dissection rupture and death,” he said.
“What we very often do in the ascending aorta is deal with an associated post-aortic valvular lesion either by an interposition graft, that is something placed above the coronary artery ostia, really at the level of the sinotubular junction, and right up to the origin of the innominate artery—a true ascending aortic replacement. We can, if we are in trouble (of course with involvement of pathology within the aortic root), replace the aortic root and that always requires reimplantation of the coronary ostia, which brings a raft of problems of threatening ischaemia with it. Up until relatively recently, this involved automatic replacement of the aortic valve. There is now a keen interest in considering valve preservation procedures, something that I have fought against for many years, because the aortic valve is embryologically of the same origin as the ascending aorta. However, counterintuitively, it appears that the aortic valve fares very well. So what to do with the arch? We can replace it with a tube graft and address each of the usual three arch vessels. Or we can translocate the whole of the aortic arch vessels permitting the use of either replacement or stenting. As cardiac surgeons, we find ourselves replacing the ascending aorta in an emergency as a life-saving procedure for dissection. We, of course, will look at ascending aortic aneurysms for elective surgery for prognostic issues and this is often in conjunction with other procedures in the chest such as aortic valve replacement,” he said.
Endovascular procedures a valid alternative in selected patients
Piergiorgio Cao, Rome, Italy, speaking on branched stent grafts for the treatment of complex arch lesions, said that any repair of aortic arch remains demanding and exposes patients to mortality and stroke risks that are “not negligible”. Open repair is the gold standard, and hybrid and endovascular repair are valid alternatives, mostly in patients who are at high risk for surgery, he noted.
Cao defined the morphological feasibility to receive endovascular treatment as the presence of a proximal landing ≥2cm in length and ≤4.2cm in diameter. The challenges for TEVAR in the arch include conformability of the stent graft, endoleak and retrograde dissection occurence, he said.
He then alluded to a recent publication in the Journal of Vascular Surgery from Paola De Rango et al that analysed total aortic arch reconstruction in a contemporary comparison of current open and endovascular repair.
De Rango et al entered endovascular and open arch procedures performed from 2007 to 2013 into a prospective database and then retrospectively analysed the data. Endovascular repair (proximal landing zones 0-1), with or without a hybrid adjunct, was selected for patients who were sicker but who had a fit anatomy. Operations involving coverage of left subclavian artery only (zone 2 proximal landing) and open hemiarch replacement were excluded.
As reported in the journal, the authors concluded that despite the older age and a higher comorbidity profile in patients with challenging aortic arch disease who were suitable and selected for endovascular arch repair, no significant differences were detected in perioperative and four-year outcomes compared with the younger patients undergoing open arch total repair.
Yesterday, Cao concluded by saying: “The endovascular approach is a valid alternative to open surgery for all patients, when morphologically feasible. A safer proximal landing zone with longer coverage of the ascending aorta may be the key for long-term durability and to prevent retrograde dissection. Branched stent grafts might be useful in avoiding arch manipulations and decreasing the risk of major adverse events,” he said.
Greenhalgh then commented that the audience might like to have some idea of the expected mortality associated with both the open and endovascular methods in the case of a 70-year-old patient with an ascending dilating disease process in which the valve becomes incompetent. Mortality is 3% with open repair and 10% with endovascular repair, the audience learned.
He further commented on the resurgence of the classification of aneurysmal disease: “The starting point seems to be aneurysmal disease. We are seeing comments on syphilitic, fusiform and saccular aneurysms and this is beginning to look like an old surgical textbook, he commented.
In a debate, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Munich, Germany, argued against the motion “The heyday of open aortic surgery is over” to garner majority support that open repair still had a valid place in the treatment of the ascending aorta and aortic arch. He persuaded 65% of the delegates to vote against the motion. Frank Veith, New York, USA, spoke for the motion.
Data evaluating the new Eluvia drug-eluting stent demonstrate 94.4% primary patency rate at nine months
A clinical trial evaluating Eluvia Drug-Eluting Vascular Stent System (Boston Scientific) has met its primary endpoint with more than 94% of the lesions treated remaining open at nine months post implantation. This was accompanied by a target lesion revascularisation rate of less than 4%.
Results from the MAJESTIC trial were presented yesterday by Stefan Müller-Hülsbeck, Flensburg, Germany, at the CX Abstracts Session – Peripheral Arterial. The trial enrolled 57 patients across Europe, Australia and New Zealand with an average lesion length of 70.8mm.
“I have not seen clinical data this impressive for a vascular stent that has to perform in an environment as challenging as the superficial femoral artery,” said Müller-Hülsbeck. “Because of forces created by knee flexion, there is an increased risk of restenosis, but we are seeing little evidence of this in the MAJESTIC trial.”
The nine-month follow-up showed no deaths or amputations.
The Eluvia Stent System is a stent purpose-built for the superficial femoral artery and uses a polymer and paclitaxel combination designed to facilitate a sustained drug release to reduce restenosis. The system is built on the Innova Stent System platform consisting of a self-expanding nitinol stent with a paclitaxel-eluting biostable polymer matrix loaded on a low-profile delivery system. According to Boston Scientific, the stent architecture features a closed-cell design at each end of the stent for more predictable deployment, and an open-cell design along the stent body for improved flexibility, strength and fracture resistance.
The Eluvia Stent System is pending CE mark and is not available for use or sale in the USA.
Yesterday, for the first time, the Charing Cross International Symposium broadcast peripheral live cases that were directly linked to data presented the previous day on the theme of peripheral arterial controversies. The aim of the course was to provide delegates with opportunities to learn techniques to achieve the best results with the approaches discussed in the data.
Speaking from Bad Krozingen via satellite video, Thomas Zeller (Bad Krozingen, Germany), the director of the peripheral live cases course, said: “The live case transmissions are little bit different from what people are used to seeing at conferences. Our goal is not to educate or teach you about complex interventions; our goal is to provide you with context to data from recently published trials or even ongoing trials.” He explained that he would be the chief operator in the cases and would be assisted by Alijoscha Rastan, Elias Noory, and Ulrich Beschomer (all from Bad Krozingen, Germany).
The first case of the course was related to the 24-month ILLUMENATE data that were presented on Tuesday at CX by Stephan Duda (Berlin, Germany). It involved a patient who was enrolled in the ILLUMENATE Global Registry, which is evaluating Spectranetic’s Stellarex drug-coated balloon. Zeller explained that the patient appeared to have very mild disease of the distal superficial femoral artery. He added that they had purposely chosen a patient with a “relatively simple lesion” to remind the audience that “almost all of the data you can see so far regarding drug-eluting balloons are TASC A or B lesions”.
Zeller reported that he would be using an 8cm drug-coated balloon (with a 4cm balloon to predilate the vessel) because the rule for using drug-coated balloons should be the same as that for using stents in the coronary arteries: treat from a healthy segment into a healthy segment. He explained that the patient in this case had diffuse disease in proximal areas.
According to Zeller, another rule for using drug-coated balloons was not to put the balloon into the vessel until “everything was prepared”. He said: “Preparation means slashing off the guidewire; it is evacuating cracked air from inside the vessel so that you can see the exact actions of the balloon when it is inflated. If you wait until the balloon is inside the vessel to do the preparation, the balloon is already exposed to the bloodstream; the longer the balloon is exposed to the bloodstream, the more drug you will lose from the surface.”
The second case, in which the Silverhawk atherectomy device (Covidien-Medtronic) and a drug-coated balloon were used to treat a popliteal artery stenosis, was also related to data presented during the peripheral arterial controversies. Zeller commented that the rationale for using atherectomy in this patient was based on the results of the DEFINITIVE AR study, which indicated that directional atherectomy and anti-restenotic therapy (DAART) could be used to improve patency in long and severely calcified lesions: the Zeller himself presented the study’s 24-month results at CX on the peripheral day. However, he commented that the patient in the case was not the typical “DEFINITIVE AR” patient because her femoral artery was “free from disease”. “The popliteal artery, in particular the distal segment, is severely exposed to extra compression forces. Therefore, we usually try to avoid placing a stent in this artery. Thus, we used atherectomy before a drug-coated balloon in this particular patient to try to avoid the need for a stent,” Zeller explained.
Rotational atherectomy, with the Jetstream device (Boston Scientific), and a drug-coated balloon (Ranger, also Boston Scientific) were used, in the third case, to treat a calcified superficial femoral artery lesion. According to Noory, who gave the overview of the case, the first-in-man data for the Ranger device were not yet available but data from the preclinical studies were “promising”. The case sparked a discussion about when to use atherectomy and when to use rotational atherectomy, with Zeller commenting: “Rotational atherectomy is a pretty good tool for occlusions. Also small vessels, 4mm for example, also respond very well to the Jetstream system. If you have larger diameters, 5–6mm vessels, or bifurcations then I prefer to use atherectomy.”
The final case of the morning was supposed to involve the use of the TurboHawk (Covidien-Medtronic) and a drug-coated balloon for the treatment of a lesion in the common femoral artery. This related to the ongoing PESTO-CFA study, which is comparing percutaneous intervention with surgery for the management of common femoral artery lesions. However, Zeller had difficulties putting in the guidewire in the lesion and, after discussing the case with the audience, decided to proceed to putting in the drug-coated balloon without using atherectomy.
In the afternoon, cases were focused on situations in which “stents were unavoidable or beneficial” and “where stents are unavoidable or beneficial and in-stent restenosis treatment”. The devices used in these cases were the Zilver PTX (Cook Medical) with a new release system, the Supera (Abbott Vascular), the Supera with a provisional re-entry device, the Innova stent (Boston Scientific), the SmartFlex (Cordis), a sirolimus-eluting balloon and the BioMimics stent (Biosensors), heparin-bonded contoured-edge Viabahn (Gore Medical), and Rotarex (Straub Medical) and IN.PACT Pacific (Medtronic). During Tuesday’s peripheral programme, there were talks reviewing the current controversies in peripheral stenting.
Giovanni Torsello (Münster, Germany), who chaired the morning session of the live cases course, said the live cases were a valuable educational tool because delegates not only wanted to hear about study data but also see “how they can make their strategies, their techniques better than before. This is why people attend live case courses.”
LINC (Leipzig Interventional Course) once again held a live case session at CX, which this year focused on below-the-knee interventions. The cases included recanalisation of an infrapopliteal obstruction with a drug-coated balloon, retrograde transpedal recanalisation with 3F access system, and lesion-specific use of a drug-eluting stent and a drug-coated balloon for an infrapopliteal obstruction. Giancarlo Biamino (Mercogliano, Italy) told CX Daily News that live cases that “do not go according to plan” were just as educational as the ones that did because it gave delegates opportunities to see how operator can manage and rectify unexpected situations.
In traditional Charing Cross fashion, yesterday’s debates stirred much discussion in the Main Auditorium. Particularly stirring was the debate where the audience voted 70% against the motion that EVAR is not sensible for any abdominal aortic aneurysm with a neck length less than 10mm. Stephen Cheng (Hong Kong) spoke for the motion, while Jan Blankensteijn (Amsterdam, Netherlands) sounded-off against the motion.
Making his case, Cheng said that even with new devices, there are more early complications, more late complications, more (difficult) secondary interventions and more adjuncts associated with short-neck endovascular aneurysm repair.
On the other hand, his opponent maintained that in selected cases of infrarenal neck length <10mm, “Any of the current infra/transrenal devices can be used with or without endoanchors for enhancement,” adding that even if it comes with a moderately increased risk of type 1a endoleak, it “balances against downsides of F-EVAR, CHIMPS, or against open repair (if F-EVAR is not an option).”
Discussing the outcome of the debate and the audience’s strong position against the motion, Blankensteijn said, “I think that people understand that things are not absolute and clearly we know that staying inside IFU you get better results. I am not running around proposing to treat any less than 10mm neck with an infrarenal device, but the point is that judicious use of these devices outside IFU can produce better results and injudicious use outside the IFU is an instruction that the industry gives you, we need to think with these device what to do an there are several occasions it does not make sense or it may even be dangerous to use a fenestrated stent graft. Then I would suppose that an infrarenal device (for instance Gore Excluder) preserves all the options juxtarenally, so if this fails, you still have the option to use a fenestrated cuff or go higher up.”
The debate took place during a session on procedures for infrarenal abdominal aortic neck.
The answer lies in the neck
While presenting the morphology findings from the IMPROVE trial, Robert Hinchliffe, London, UK, drew attention to independent association between neck length and mortality. “Only aortic neck length is significantly associated (inversely) with 30-day mortality both for open repair (p<0.001) and overall (p=0.007). The shorter the neck, the higher the mortality after open repair (and EVAR). With long necks, the 30-day mortality from EVAR and open repair is similar (and this is consistent with the results of the AJAX and ECAR trials),” he said.
Therefore, added Hinchliffe, a short aneurysm neck was the commonest reason for a patient being unsuitable for conventional EVAR. The results also explain why observational studies, which cherry pick long-necked aneurysms for EVAR leaving all the short necked aneurysms for open repair, always show that mortality is lower after EVAR. “Such observational studies are comparing apples and oranges,” he said.
The morphology findings could also explain the worse outcomes in women as short aneurysm necks are especially common in women.
“In the future, new, widely available endovascular strategies for rupture in short necked aneurysms are needed and results following rupture should report juxta-renal and infra-renal aneurysms separately,” Hinchliffe said.
“Aneurysm morphology indicates whether a patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is eligible for EVAR and may influence the outcome of both EVAR and open surgical repair,” he concluded.
Stick to the IFU
Timothy Resch, Malmö, Sweden, enforced the point that the outcome of EVAR is “excellent if we stick to the IFU and hostile sealing zone anatomy affects the outcome of EVAR negatively both in the short and long term regardless of the device that you use.”
Resch explained that 10—20% of EVAR patients have necks <15mm, and these short infrarenal necks are predictive of initial technical failure, with increased incidence of early and late type 1 endoleak and increased use of intraoperative adjunctive procedures, where the long-term outcome is impaired and endoleaks, migration and late rupture are common.
Referring to a contemporary meta-analysis of 12,000 patients treated with modern devices, 3,039 patients with hostile necks saw an increase in 30-day mortality, intraoperative adjuncts, 30-day migration and an increase in type 1 endoleak at 30 days and one year.
Further, in the ANCHOR registry, Resch noted, a regression and ROC analysis was used to try to find predictive factors for type 1a endoleak which showed that the diameter of the neck correlates with poor outcome, as does the anatomic neck length. “This actually provides some solid data for calculating the risk in the individual patient,” he said.
“So one option of course in these short juxta pararenal aneurysms is to seal higher above and use the fenestrated and incorporate the visceral arteries in your repair. Does that solve the problem of the proximal endoleaks? Again, it depends on how you use the graft,” Resch suggested.
Making a case from some of his own data and that of a study at the Cleveland Clinic, USA. “We found no cases with proximal type 1 endoleaks during long-term follow-up of these patients. So maybe this is the solution for everything—using it in the right context. In a larger series from the Cleveland Clinic analysing over 900 patients with fenestrated grafts, indeed there was a 2.8% incidence of late type 1a endoleak occurring in a steady fashion over time and almost half after a year post-operatively. Looking at the risk factor in that series, what they identified again was a poor sealing zone, just as you would in an infrarenal neck and more that 10% was diameter change and they also found that the sealing zone was much more unstable in the juxtarenal vs. more proximal aorta. So from the clinical perspective, we have learned from that and we now place more fenestrations on the graft to reach a healthy sealing zone, which in our series, combined with the series from Lille with 300 patients, resulted in a higher placement of the endograft than we initially did without affecting the operative mortality or the one-year outcome,” he reported.
The INNOVATION study found that the rate of freedom proximal type I endoleaks and the rate of freedom from reintervention in patients who underwent endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) with the Incraft (Cordis) device was, respectively, 100% and 95%, at three years. In this interview, CX Daily News speaks to Giovanni Pratesi (Florence, Italy)—who presented the data at CX yesterday—about Incraft and the three-year results.
How does the Incraft stent graft differ from other EVAR devices?
It is a new-generation stent graft system with unique features that have been specifically designed to overcome the limitations of current stent grafts. For example, the ultra-low profile integrated delivery system (14F OD) offers excellent navigational opportunities in challenging access vessels. Additionally, the micrometric deployment system allows for accurate placement—either at proximal and distal attachment site. Bilateral in-situ length adjustment, up to 3cm, permits you to customise every implant on the single patient anatomy. Therefore, the Incraft system, according to the “few-fits-most” concept, is able to cover a large spectrum of anatomies with only 23 product codes, four main bodies and 19 iliac limbs.
What are the main results of the INNOVATION study at three years?
The three-year results of the INNOVATION study have confirmed the very promising one- and two-year outcomes of the study. These data show, at three years, the device is associated with 100% freedom from type Ia and III endoleaks, stent-graft migrations, and device- or procedure-related major adverse events. They also show that the rate of limb patency is 97.8%, with only one case of limb occlusion. Other findings from the three-year data indicate that there is a significant reduction in mean aortic aneurysm diameter, up to 15 mm, compared with two-year data, a freedom from sac increase of 95.6% and freedom from stent fractures of 97.7%. Core lab analysis has identified two cases of aneurysm sac enlargement—both associated with a persistent type II endoleak—and one case of stent fracture, but these events did not appear to have any clinical consequences.
What other data were included in your presentation?
I specifically addressed endograft durability and anatomical preservation in my analysis of the Innovation study. Data from core lab analysis have confirmed the excellent stent graft stability that has already been observed during follow-up. A median proximal migration of 2mm was observed at three-year compared with the one-month computed tomography (CT) scan. The same result was achieved in terms of distal migration with a median change of 1.1mm and 2mm on the right and left side respectively, compared with the one-month CT scan.
Aortic neck diameter, neck angulation and iliac artery diameter, compared with one-month CT scan, were analysed at three years to review endograft influence on anatomic changes during follow-up. The observed 1mm proximal neck dilatation and 2mm iliac artery dilatation, combined with the 0.6 degree changes for infrarenal neck angulation and 2.4 degree for suprarenal neck angulation, confirmed the excellent stent graft conformability to the preoperative anatomy.
What were the main take-home messages from your presentation?
These data confirm the very promising earlier outcomes of Incraft stent graft system and add new evidence regarding its effectiveness in terms of anatomy preservation with a 100% freedom from both proximal aortic neck and iliac dilatation, and from proximal supra- and infrarenal aortic neck angulation changes.
Yesterday saw the beginning of the two-day CX Venous Workshop, in which delegates can enjoy expert demonstrations of a selection of the most interesting and important phlebological technologies currently in use. Now in its seventh year, the event continues to attract more and more delegates to its plethora of new and established technologies, and this year occupied its largest space ever on the Upper Level of the Gallery. The first day of the workshop largely focused on varicose vein treatment and superficial venous issues.
Ian Franklin (Imperial College, London, UK) is leading the workshop over both days, and has done since it first featured at the Charing Cross Symposium seven years ago. He explained, “I think it is important to provide a combination of the big plenary sessions in the hall and smaller interactive workshops like this one—not all techniques and discussions lend themselves the plenary environment. By providing these training stations and this small-group one-to-one teaching format, it means that people can interact in a much more informal, personal level.”
Over its seven years the workshop has grown and changed, keeping pace with the changing face of the vascular field. “The needs have changed,” Franklin commented. “When we first started doing this it was an office-based varicose vein course. Now it is far more than that. We have found that quite a lot of the techniques that people were hungry to learn at the beginning are ‘old hat’ now, so each year we offer new things. Now people are hungry to learn deep vein stenting, intravascular ultrasound, non-thermal techniques for treating veins, and so on. This year we have some completely new things that people will not have seen before.”
Given the quality of the Charing Cross faculty, such one-to-one interaction presents an exciting educational opportunity. “All of our faculty are well-known names and enthusiasts in their field. You can interact with them much better if you talk to them face-to-face rather than if they are up on a podium and you are down in the audience and asking the questions through a microphone. This way you can ask things you might not be able to go into in a lecture theatre.” Franklin added that these face-to-face interactions combine with practical experience, and delegates can “hold the kit in their hands, practice on the simulator and talk through tips and tricks with someone who has done it a lot before—you cannot do that in a lecture theatre.”
The workshop’s layout with multiple training stations also means that delegates can be efficient with their time, heading straight for those stations dealing with subjects they are unfamiliar with. “They do not have to sit through things they already know about, so they can make very efficient use of their time,” Franklin said.
The workshop features both established and new technology. One of the busiest stations yesterday was that of a well-established technology—foam sclerotherapy. Simon Ashley (Plymouth, UK), was one of the trainers at the station. He spoke to CX Daily News during the workshop, and explained, “Personally it is the first time that I have been involved as a trainer, but I know that it has been running for a number of years and has grown increasingly popular—that is why so much space has been devoted to it.” As to why the station was so busy, Ashley noted that foam sclerotherapy “is a walk-in walk-out treatment that only takes about 20 minutes and there is no down time or restriction of activities afterwards. It is also very attractive for NHS and private practice because it is undoubtedly the most cost-effective treatment.”
In keeping with the Charing Cross Symposium’s passion for innovation, there was also a selection of new techniques and products on show. The Biolas station, exhibiting the company’s non-thermal ablation VariClose vein sealing system, was kept busy throughout the day by curious delegates. The company are attending their first ever Charing Cross Symposium, and chief medical officer, Yunus Çakiroĝlu, told CX Daily News “We are new this year, so I think a lot of people are wondering about our products and our company—they want to find out who we are and what we have at our station. The meeting is very exciting, and the workshop is a great way for the delegates to understand new technology.”
The workshop will continue today with a focus on acute deep vein thrombosis interventions, intravenous ultrasound and deep venous stenting, but still including ablation technologies for superficial veins. The stations open for delegates to visit will include: thermal (laser), thermal (radiofrequency ablation), non-thermal, practical training stations, valves, vascular ultrasound training simulator, venous malformations, pelvic venous imaging, pelvic vein embolisation, acute deep vein thrombosis, caval filters, follow-up protocols, air plethysmography, intravascular ultrasound and deep vein stenting.
Franklin expects the Upper Gallery to be just as busy as it was yesterday thanks to the planning of this year’s programme. He said, “We have made an effort to separate the days this year, with Wednesday focusing more on superficial techniques. On Thursday we are going to have a big focus on deep vein stenting, deep vein thrombosis treatments, pelvic vein embolisation and intravascular ultrasound. These are all quite new for us and should attract a new group, so I expect it to be busy tomorrow as well.”
According to Janet Powell, Imperial College London, UK, the highest risk factors for rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are female gender, smoking, increasing age and mean arterial pressure, but there are still few useful indicators of how to manage screen-detected aneurysms to stop them enlarging. Powell put forward this view during yesterday’s Abdominal Aortic Controversies Main Programme which explored epidemiology, indications and medical management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.
In trying to work out what makes aneurysms grow, Powell said that mostly the “mundane” cardiovascular risk factors have been looked at—alcohol, diet, obesity, smoking, medicines taken, exercise taken.
Turning to the existing and ongoing randomised trials that provide evidence for growth factors, Powell pointed out three trials already completed and without a positive result—AAA:STOP, PHAST and AORTA.
“Even in 2015, it is quite difficult to find information about trials because some trials still remain unregistered. Large epidemiological studies have mainly shown us about the risks for developing aneurysms, but the focus has been on baseline risk factors, not aneurysm progression,” she said.
Powell referred to RESCAN, a large international project primarily with the purpose of looking at optimal surveillance intervals for small aortic aneurysms, which was an individual patient data meta-analysis of small aneurysms, their growth and rupture in more than 15,000 persons.
“As we all know, growth rate increases with aortic diameter—just 1.34mm a year for the smallest aneurysms and 3.63mm when it comes to 5cm aneurysms—with exactly the same growth rate between men and women,” she pointed out.
When it comes to smoking, Powell maintained that the data are remarkably consistent that it increases aneurysm growth rate but that the effect is modest. Similarly, the effect of diabetes to slow or reduce the aneurysm growth rate is very consistent, but small.
“So we identified out of the available baseline data we had only two factors in these 15,000 patients that influenced growth rate and both effects were relatively modest—smoking increases, diabetes decreases. Cholesterol, blood pressure, statins, anti-hypertensive drugs and aspirin had no effect, and the year of enrolment [1985–2008] had absolutely no effect either. Disappointing,” Powell stated.
Even though rupture of small aneurysms is not common, findings were more informative. RESCAN showed that the smallest of aneurysms take eight or more years before the risk of rupture is anything substantive, but as the diameter increases, so does the risk of rupture. But even for a 5cm aneurysm, it is more than year before risk of rupture exceeds 1%.
Powell pointed to some strong associations with factors that increase rupture rates. “Most notable, the fact that in women, there is fourfold increase in rupture rates vs. men. With smokers there is a twofold increase, with a far bigger effect on rupture than on growth. Mean arterial pressure increases growth rate, as does age. The older you are, the more likely your aneurysm is to rupture for any given diameter. So we cannot have any of this ageism, we need to treat aneurysms in older people too,” Powell maintained.
In the EVAR 2 trial, and subsequently reproduced in other papers, Powell observed that aortic neck length was associated with rupture and the shape of the aneurysm might have mattered, and a long neck was associated with relative protection from aneurysm rupture.
“Where are we in 2015? For rupture, there are some strong factors increasing risk: female gender, smoking (which we can do something about), increasing age, higher mean arterial pressures (we could have more effective blood pressure control), and the fact that a long aneurysm neck could just be protective. However, for growth, the effects that we have identified are modest: smoking, which increases it, and diabetes, which is protective,” Powell said.
She re-stressed that both of those growth effects are modest, adding that, “unfortunately this leaves us in a position that as yet we have few useful indicators of how to manage screen-detected aneurysms to stop them enlarging other than the old classic that was used for intermittent claudication—stop smoking and possibly keep walking.”
Results from the 12-month data of the randomised controlled IMPROVE trial, presented for the first time at CX 2015 (28 April–1May, London, UK), show that an endovascular strategy is cost-effective when compared to open repair in the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. The one-year data also revealed that the endovascular strategy conferred no survival benefit over open repair, except a trend towards benefitting women. It also showed that the endovascular strategy enabled more patients to be discharged from hospital to home, and significantly faster than with open repair. Patients also have an excellent quality of life with endovascular strategy, if they survive the rupture, delegates heard.
Twelve-month outcomes from the individual patient data meta-analysis of three randomised controlled trials of ruptured aneurysms [ie the Dutch AJAX trial, the French ECAR trial and the UK IMPROVE trial] also showed a trend towards survival benefit for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), but this was not statistically significant. A CX audience poll in the session revealed that nearly 80% agreed that the 12-month results of the IMPROVE trial encouraged them to perform EVAR more often.
Janet Powell, Imperial College, London, UK, presented the latest data from the IMPROVE (Immediate management of the patient with rupture: Open vs. endovascular repair) trial that reported one-year outcomes following either a strategy of endovascular repair first or open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. The results demonstrate no survival benefit for the endovascular strategy for ruptured aneurysm at one year. However, an endovascular-first strategy for the management of ruptured aneurysms does offer patients faster discharge with better quality of life and it is also cost-effective. Both these factors are necessary for patient and clinical decision-making, delegates heard. These data were published in April in the European Heart Journal (EHJ).
IMPROVE, a pragmatic, multicentre (29 UK and one Canada) trial randomised 613 patients with a clinical diagnosis of ruptured aneurysm, 316 patients to an endovascular-first strategy (if aortic morphology was suitable and open repair if not) and 297 to open repair. Powell also drew attention to the fact that at baseline, the characteristics of the two groups were similar with almost three-quarters in each group being men. “The aneurysms in this trial were also very large with average diameters in each group being over 8cm,” she said. The principal one-year outcome was mortality and secondary outcomes were reinterventions, hospital discharge, health-related quality-of-life, costs, quality-adjusted-life-years and cost-effectiveness.
At CX 2015, Powell noted that the trial was designed to answer the question of what to do with a patient who presents to the emergency room with a diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. “What we had anticipated was that using an endovascular strategy, wherever it was morphologically feasible, we could reduce 30-day operative mortality from 47% in the open repair group to 33% where endovascular repair was used extensively,” she said.
Powell added: “At one year, all-cause mortality was 41.1% for the endovascular strategy group and 45.1% for the open repair group (p=0.325) with similar reintervention rates in each. A subgroup analysis showed a stronger benefit for the endovascular strategy in women versus men. The endovascular strategy group and open repair groups had average total hospital stays of 17 and 26 days, respectively.
The 30-day mortality results, the primary outcome, previously published in British Medical Journal (BMJ) in 2014, also found no difference in 30-day mortality between the endovascular strategy group and the open repair group and subgroup analysis showed a strong benefit for the endovascular strategy in women compared with men.
Pooled individual patient data outcomes
Ron Balm presented the 12-month outcomes meta-analysis from the individual patient data from the three randomised controlled trials of ruptured aneurysms; the Dutch AJAX trial (Annals of Surgery 2013), the French ECAR trial (EJVES 2015) and the UK IMPROVE trial.
“These were all trials that were performed on patients with a clinical suspicion of ruptured aneurysm. In the AJAX trial the 30-day mortality in both groups was approximately 25%, in ECAR it was 22% and in IMPROVE, which had a slightly different study design, it was 35% in each group (BMJ 2014), but all failed to demonstrate the benefit of EVAR in the emergent setting. “The results were hampered by the fact that open repair performed so much better than we expected,” Balm noted.
The pooled inpatient data was subjected to two different analyses; the first was an analysis as randomised including all patients and the second contained only those patients with proven rupture and a restricted cohort from the IMPROVE trial who were anatomically suitable for EVAR.
“The 30-day survival data showed no significant benefit for endovascular repair. A subgroup analysis of age, sex and Hardman disability index showed that age and Hardman index had no influence on the main results, but female sex was identified as benefitting from endovascular repair. The time to discharge alive from primary admission was also significantly better for patients undergoing EVAR when compared to those undergoing open repair. We also looked at the influence of neck diameter, neck length and neck angulation. Longer neck lengths resulted in better survival for all patients,” Balm said.
In the pooled results of all patients, the three-month mortality rate included only those patients who were fit for endovascular repair, which reduces the patients in the IMPROVE trial. There seems a benefit for endovascular repair but this is statistically not significant, he said.
Summarising the survival results of all pooled patients to one year, Balm said, there is an advantage for EVAR, but this is statistically not significant.
These findings led Balm to conclude that the early data from the pooled inpatient data meta-analysis did not suggest that there was any survival benefit for EVAR. “At one year, the small survival advantage of EVAR is not significant. Yet, although endovascular repair does not offer a significant survival advantage, endovascular repair should be used more widely. Open repair must remain available for those unsuitable for conventional EVAR,” Balm maintained.
Are patients with ruptured aneurysms being turned down too often?
A small majority of voters, 57%, did not agree with the motion “Too many patients with ruptured aneuryms are denied intervention” in an interesting debate on the topic.
Matt Thompson, London, UK, speaking for the motion, based his arguments on the data from Karthikesalingam et al (The Lancet, 2014), which used UK Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data and US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data to show that in-hospital survival from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, intervention rates, and uptake of endovascular repair are lower in England than in the USA.
Thompson stated that 68% of patients in the UK receive no treatment for rupture. “There is a huge variation in the proportion of patients being offered therapy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm at the regional and international level. Non-interventional treatment is universally fatal,” he said.
Thompson argued that apart from identifying the optimal management strategy for patients with ruptured aneurysms, more emphasis should be placed on treatment rates. “We must do better than refuse treatment to around 60% patients,” he said.
Peter Lamont, Bristol, UK, who persuaded the delegates that ruptured aneurysm patients were not being denied interventional treatment too often, contested the data presented by Thompson because with the HES data it made the assumption that the diagnostic code for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm without an operative code for the condition was a turndown. He also pointed out that a 2005 coding audit had found up to 23% HES codes to be incorrect. Further, NIS data misses 80% of patients, noted Lamont.
“Numerous direct audits in 2010 and after in the UK show consistent turndown rates of around 20% by vascular surgeons,” he said.
Lamont pointed to a Vascular Society members audit in 2011 that revealed a turndown rate of 24% and also showed that the average age of patients was 83. “Of these, 24% declined intervention, 14% had dementia and 21% had terminal malignancy/severe chronic disease,” he added.
Lamont concluded by saying that the service reconfiguration in the UK guarantees that vascular surgeons are now on call 24/7 for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. “When comparing like for like, the turndown rates in the UK are similar to those in the USA,” Lamont said.
In the ensuing discussion, Powell made the point that twice as many women than men are turned down for treatment when they present with ruptured aneurysm and asked for a response on why this might be the case. “We did not formally address that in the IMPROVE trial, but there are several observational cohorts to suggest that adopting a more minimally invasive approach would lead to a reduction in turndown rates in these patients,” added Thompson.
Thompson explained the criteria for palliation; patients in whom intervention is completely futile, such as those with advanced malignancy or dementia, who have no quality of life are suitable candidates for palliation. “There are patients in whom it is cruel to intervene as they do not want their life prolonged,” agreed Lamont.
Frank Veith, New York, USA, made the point that the way to decrease the turn down rate for ruptured aneurysms was to embrace endovascular repair.
The use of bioresorbable scaffolds is the only complete solution for the superficial femoral artery, argued Andrew Holden, Auckland, New Zealand, in yesterday’s Peripheral Arterial Controversies session.
Presenting an update on the Stanza programme, Holden told delegates that the ideal treatment strategy for superficial femoral artery disease has been the source of much research, discussion and controversy. “An endovascular device should provide vessel support acutely to manage dissection and recoil, include an anti-restenosis strategy and preferably leave nothing behind when no longer needed. A bioresorbable drug-eluting scaffold potentially fulfils these requirements,” he explained.
The programme employed the Stanza platform (480 Biomedical)—a flexible, self-expanding stent design with full resorption in about 12 months. Holden summarised the development of the Stanza scaffold, the first part of which—the STANCE first-in-man trial—allowed “assessment of stent parameters such as precise positioning and deployment, excellent radial resistive force with minimal residual stenosis and satisfactory resorption.”
Two sub-studies in the STANCE trial allowed original validation of important imaging modalities by independent core laboratories. One sub-study analysed the accuracy of quantitative vessel analysis of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) compared to the gold standard catheter angiography. A second sub-study compared cross sectional luminal area evaluation using MRA and optical coherence tomography (OCT). This comprehensive analysis, Holden explained, confirms MRA is “an effective method to assess the vessel lumen non-invasively after treatment with a bioresorbable scaffold.”
The study showed 100% scaffold delivery success, good scaffold apposition verified by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and angiography, and acute performance similar to metal stents. Holden noted that OCT is a vital tool in the assessment of bioresorbable scaffolds, as it allows investigators to identify scaffold encapsulation during healing and resorption. Using OCT Holden was also able to create 3D reconstructions of the vessel, allowing him to detect any scaffold fractures and show that at six months the scaffold demonstrated chronic strength to prevent vessel recoil.
The drug-eluting version of the Stanza platform is currently being assessed in the SPRINT clinical trial. Holden told attendees that the biggest challenge has been to define appropriate and extended drug release kinetics to deal with the inflammation associated with scaffold resorption. This has been achieved with the drug eluting version of Stanza. Currently, there is ongoing recruitment and evaluation in this trial, as well as several examples with medium-term follow-up.
In one such case study, pre-implant the patient had 88% stenosis, a figure which fell to just 2% residual stenosis following the implant. Similarly, in the second case that Holden presented, the pre-implant stenosis figure was 92%, falling to 0% following the implantation of Stanza. Both of these case studies were evaluated with MRA and OCT to confirm the outcomes.
The CX Innovation Showcase is dedicated to highlighting what it takes for a physician-inventor to succeed and for innovative ideas in the vascular and endovascular arena to thrive. Yesterday’s session brought together leading industry experts, physician-inventors, engineers, medtech investors and start-up companies all focused on improving vascular disease management.
Chaired by Stephen Greenhalgh, the 2015 Innovation Showcase covered innovations across five areas: endovascular aortic, complex aortic endografting, peripheral, diagnostic and vascular access.
Andrew Holden (Auckland, New Zealand) presented for the first time at a scientific meeting, the first-in-man experience with the Advance 35 scoring balloon (Cook Medical) in haemodialysis fistula stenosis. He noted that it is well known that stenosis in the haemodialysis access circuit is a common complication for patients on haemodialysis, adding that regular surveillance is important, especially after intervention because restenosis is common. Holden said that the para-anastomotic and outflow stenoses are often resistant to angioplasty using conventional angioplasty balloons at nominal pressures, and frequently, ancillary measures are required, such as scoring or high pressure balloon angioplasty. These ancillary procedures, he said, come at a financial cost as well as a morbidity cost related to upsizing sheaths and guidewire exchanges.
In the early experience with a 0.035” guidewire compatible scoring balloon, specifically designed for the management of fistula stenosis, 39 stenotic lesions in 28 patients were treated. Acute procedural success, as defined by a residual stenosis of <30% was achieved in 38 of 39 patients (97%).
“This compares very favourably to an audit of consecutive patients at the same centre treated with standard angioplasty balloons where procedural success was only 48%. In the trial only one patient required an ancillary procedure to optimise the result where 11 patients required cutting balloon or high pressure balloon angioplasty in the audit group,” Holden reported.
Optical coherence tomography in a sub-group of patients confirmed the scoring effect in treated vessels. At one month, patency was 100%. Six-month patency will be evaluated soon.
“These promising results suggest this 0.035” guidewire compatible scoring technology could become a ‘first line’ tool for the treatment of dialysis fistula stenosis,” Holden concluded.
Bao Bui (Sherbrooke, Canada) made a case for in vivo antegrade fenestration of renal arteries in pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). He said that in vivo fenestration is associated with a low leak rate, it is easy to learn and to perform, there is no wait time using off-the-shelf devices, and the device is possible for emergency use.
He concluded stating that based on initial results (five patients, no leak and no migration 10 months follow-up, all AAAs and the TAAA have decreased in size), in vivo antegrade fenestration is a very promising, reliable technique that is easy to perform with existing devices.
Complex aortic endografting
Patrick Kelly (Sioux Falls, USA) looked at a paravisceral non-anatomical branch endograft system. Noting that repairing short neck, pararenal, paravisceral, and type IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms is challenging because moving the seal zone more proximally increases the risk of paraplegia, he presented a novel approach for sealing just above the celiac.
“We envision the device to be completely off-the-shelf, to lessen or completely negate the need for rotational alignment, and deliver ordered, well-developed flow to the branch arteries. Until the devices are pre-manufactured, we are using physician-modified versions for patients with limited options. The device is made with a diaphragm, which allows for minimal aortic coverage,” Kelly said.
He explained that the paravisceral stent graft configuration is built from a 28–36mm Endurant stent graft (Medtronic) which is shortened to 30mm with the suprarenal fixation hooks left attached. The diaphragm is created from an ePTFE vascular patch. The lumens are made from Viabahn stent grafts (Gore). The paravisceral stent graft is introduced through the groin. The bridging stents for the renal arteries, SMA, and coeliac are introduced through the arm. Once the visceral segment is excluded, a standard EVAR is performed to exclude the remainder of the infrarenal aorta.
“Our experience to date has been one of excellent technical success and early branch vessel patency,” Kelly concluded.
Pierre Galvagni Silveira gave the early clinical results of the TAMBE (Gore) thoracoabdominal branch endoprosthesis. He reported that at 30-day follow-up there was no endoleak and treated branch patency was 100%.
Silveira concluded stating, “The TAMBE device is the only ‘all-in-one’ pre-cannulated off-the-shelf system, including aortic component and side branch stent graft. While the initial results are promising, longer term outcomes are needed to confirm this early experience.”
Shin Ishimaru (Saitama, Japan) presented the Najuta endograft for total branch repair. He said that the primary concept of Najuta was to design a tailor-made endograft suitable for the aorta of each individual patient. “The proximal end of the device is placed between zone 0 and 2, which constitutes the highly critical region involved with the aortic arch and branch arteries. Fixation of the endograft is successful if there is at least 20mm of healthy aorta from the left carotid or subclavian arteries to the margin of the aneurysm,” Ishimura said.
He concluded adding that with almost 200 cases now done in Japan, and five-year data on the horizon, the Najuta fenestrated endograft is a “promising device for aortic arch application”.
Jan Heyligers (Tilburg, Netherlands) discussed spiral vein reconstruction using the greater saphenous vein to reconstruct a neo-aorta in infected cases. Heyligers noted that research has shown spinal vein reconstruction to be technically feasible and a successful alternative for the Glagett-Nevelsteen procedure. He said that the advantages are that no training is necessary, there is no learning curve, diameter is not an issue and there is no morbidity when harvesting the deep vein.
Stephen Williams (Baltimore, USA) discussed helical 3D stenting with the BioMimics 3D stent (Veryan), maintaining that the Mimics data indicate in-stent swirling flow/endothelial wall shear stress could be beneficial to maintain long-term patency. “This is really the only stent in 12–24-month range study to date that seems to offer this improvement in avoidance of late restonotic events,” Williams noted.
He later announced that the US IDE trial for the BioMimics stent is upcoming, with the first enrolment expected by the end of this quarter.
Patrick Kelly presented the early results of paclitaxel after endorevascularisation, concluding that drug infusion balloons could have great potential.
“We believe it to be more favourable [than drug-coated balloons] in many regards, including: shorter regulatory path, lower device cost, and more flexibility in the therapeutic used,” Kelly maintained.
He explained that he has been working on this project with two parallel paths: clinical research using an already available infusion balloon, and bench top and animal research to evaluate various excipients. “In the clinic, we have seen an improvement in freedom from binary restenosis and freedom from target lesion revascularisation. On the benchtop and in animals we have evaluated cremaphor, urea, contrast, and Abraxane.”
He reported that notably, “Abraxane shows superior tissue penetration in our animal models when quantified with a validated high performance liquid chromatography method. The Abraxane is also a superior in terms of biocompatibility without the need for any toxic solubility agents.”
The next step in the research will include a prospective randomised blinded clinical study of 150 limbs with de novo lesions.
David King (London, UK) returned to the CX Innovation Showcase this year after his winning pitch in the 2014 Dragons’ Den. Yesterday, he presented his Blue Dop technology (with which he won the 2014 £1000 Dragons’ Den prize), and made a case for the technology’s empowerment of nurses in vascular investigations.
King said that Blue Dop empowers tissue viability nurses working in the community to start patient treatment immediately, thus reducing costs for GP practices, reducing the number of hospital referrals, speeding up the patient treatment “journey” and reducing the load on vascular labs.
Dragons slayed by new dialysis graft technology
In the tradition of the CX Innovation Showcase, the highly-anticipated Dragons’ Den did not disappoint in 2015 with presentations of 15 new and innovative ideas from physician-inventors from all over the world.
With much to consider after two hours of impressive presentations, Jeffrey Lawson (Durham, USA) came out on top, winning over the Dragons and gaining the most votes in his favour for his dialysis graft technology.
Lawson spoke to CX Daily News about his technology stating, “It is a novel dialysis graft that is meant to protect patients when their dialysis graft needs to be cannulated by a sharp needle. You can only cannulate the graft or the blood-flowing portion safely and reliably—that is the nature of the innovation.”
In terms of progress, Lawson reported that animal testing with the device has been done and a very mature prototype design has been developed. Further, he said that his team has met with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in light of plans for the first-in-man implant.
Commenting on the value of the Dragons’ Den, Lawson said, “It is a wonderful opportunity, and it is fun. It is also really good to see other people’s technology making progress.”
Speaking to CX Daily News, course director and chairman, Stephen Greenhalgh said, “The feedback I received from the Dragons was that this year saw the most wide-ranging, innovative group of presentations that we have ever had at Charing Cross, and based on voting results—where varying presentations received recognition from the individual Dragons—it shows how closely fought it was.”
Speaking of the future of the CX Dragons’ Den, Greenhalgh added, “I just want to ensure that Charing Cross always provides a platform for early stage innovation.”
Honourable mention was also given to Peter Philips (Didcot, UK) for his ideal compression stocking; Tim Chuter (San Francisco, USA) for his Inchworm balloon; and Lindsay Machan (Vancouver, Canada) for his uniform pressure non-straightening angioplasty balloon.
Twelve-month results from the randomised, multicentre DEFINITIVE AR pilot study suggest that there is a benefit to adding directional atherectomy in long and calcified lesions prior to using a drug-coated balloon in comparison to the use of a drug-coated balloon alone. Data from the trial were presented yesterday by Thomas Zeller, Bad Krozingen, Germany, who is a study principal investigator alongside Gunnar Tepe, Rosenheim, Germany.
DEFINITIVE AR was designed to assess the effect of treating a lesion with directional atherectomy (Medtronic/Covidien’s SilverHawk or TurboHawk plaque excision systems) followed by a paclitaxel-coated balloon (Bayer HealthCare’s peripheral paclitaxel-coated angioplasty catheter with Paccocath Technology), collectively referred to as DAART (directional atherectomy + anti-restenotic therapy), in order to generate early hypotheses for further research in this therapy area.
Claudicants (Rutherford clinical category 2–4) with 7–15cm superficial femoral and/or popliteal lesions were randomised 1:1 to either DAART (n=48) or to the paclitaxel-coated balloon alone (n=54). Patients with severely calcified lesions were assigned to a non-randomised registry arm and were treated with DAART (n=19). Baseline patient and lesion characteristics did not differ between the DAART and drug-coated balloon arms.
Technical success, defined as ≤30% residual stenosis following the protocol-defined treatment at the target lesion, was significantly higher in the DAART arm vs. the drug-coated balloon arm (89.6% vs. 64.2%, p=0.004). According to Zeller, there were significantly fewer flow-limiting dissections reported in patients treated with DAART vs. drug-coated balloon alone (2% vs 19%, p=0.01). Technical success in the DAART registry group was 84.2% and incidence of flow-limiting dissections was 0%.
At 12 months, per cent stenosis in the randomised groups was 33.6±17.7 for the DAART arm vs. 36.4±17.6 for the drug-coated balloon arm. Duplex ultrasound patency (PSVR ≤2.4, without target lesion revascularisation) was 93.4% for the DAART arm and 89.6% for the drug-coated balloon arm. Angiographic patency (≤50% stenosis and without target lesion revascularisation) was 82.4% in the DAART arm and 71.8% in the drug-coated balloon arm. In the DAART cohort lesions with a residual stenosis <30% post atherectomy did show a trend towards better angiographic patency at one year (94.1% vs. 68.8%).
“This rigorously performed pilot study suggests an added benefit for DAART over drug-coated balloons alone in long and calcified lesions. Further investigation in larger, prospective, statistically-powered randomised trials is warranted. Patients will be followed out to 24 months to assess durability of the results,” Zeller said.
At this year’s Charing Cross Symposium, Cordis is launching the Outback Elite re-entry catheter, an enhanced version of the Outback re-entry catheter that received the CE mark earlier this week. According to the company, Outback Elite provides more control and precision and includes additional features to enable re-entry into the most complex lesions whilst facilitating positioning and delivery.
Yesterday, Thomas Zeller, Bad Krozingen, Germany, a user of the Outback re-entry catheter, spoke to CX Daily News about his experience with the device and his expectations about this new iteration.
Amongst the new features of Outback Elite are single-handed torque and deployment—the torque control is located closer to the needle actuator and the longer handle provides a more efficient slider mechanism—a robust nitinol cannula for re-entry in very complex lesions and a lubricious hydrophilic coating to help delivery.
In addition, the Outback Elite is available in a 120cm shaft length as the previous catheter but is also being launched with an 80cm shaft length indicated for ipsilateral antegrade or iliac procedures. The new size offers the advantage of having less shaft length to handle outside of the patient, increasing precision on the re-entry site.
The Outback Elite follows the successful performance of the Outback catheter. In a randomised controlled trial by Roberto Gandini et al comparing re-entry with Outback vs. manual re-entry in chronic total occlusions in the superficial femoral artery, the device achieved 100% re-entry rate vs. 42.3% with the manual re-entry technique. It also showed shorter procedure and fluoroscopy times.
Kristen Rock, global product director at Cordis, told CX Daily News, “Outback Elite’s ergonomic handle and added shaft sizes provide physicians with more control, meaning they can easily pinpoint exactly where they want the re-entry site to be.”
The Outback re-entry device will be used in a live case today at the CX Live Peripheral Arterial Cases – SFA and popliteal in the Grey Learning Centre.
Drug-coated balloon technology is unlikely to be a successful “stand alone” treatment for the majority of medium and long length superficial femoral artery lesions, the voting results from CX2015 implied. The voting showed that the audience felt that drug-coated balloon use was best suited to short lesions. The randomised controlled trial data for drug-coated balloons are mostly based on short lesions and 57% of the audience voted “no” to the question, “Is drug-eluting balloon technology likely to be a successful standalone treatment for the majority of medium and long length superficial femoral artery lesions?” The session in which the vote was held was titled “Leaving nothing behind” and also saw the presentation of the ILLUMENATE first-in-human study 24-month results. These were favourable for the Stellarex drug-coated balloon (Spectranetics), and came close on the heels of updates on the Lutonix drug-coated balloon (Bard) and the IN.PACT Admiral drug-coated balloon (Medtronic). Atherectomy as a pretreatment also received a boost.
For the first time, CX voters also found support for atherectomy, but as a pre-treatment to the use of drug-coated balloons as described in the DEFINITIVE AR trial or as a pre-treatment to the use of stents. The majority, 77%, supported the motion “pretreatment of superficial femoral artery lesions before drug-coated balloon has CX 2015 audience support.
Thomas Zeller, Bad Krozingen, Germany, explained that “Drug-coated balloons add benefit to the endovascular approach to treat femoropopliteal disease but that there are still limitations such as recoil, calcium and dissections.”
Previous research has shown that circumferential calcification is a negative predictor for successful outcome with drug-coated balloon angioplasty. “Directional atherectomy is one of the most interesting pretreatment plaque modulating or plaque removing options available, after cutting or scoring balloons have been shown not to be very effective at this. The removal of ex-centric plaque and calcified plaque serves to reduce the problem of early recoil that limits the use of drug-coated balloon angioplasty outcome,” he said. Zeller also noted that the large majority vote favouring the use of atherectomy as a pretreatment were akin to a mandate to the industry to support large-scale randomised controlled trial to prove this concept.
In previous years, atherectomy has failed to elicit CX voter backing as a definitive treatment option in the superficial femoral artery. In 2014, 57% of the CX audience voted “no” to the motion, “I would use atherectomy for some superficial femoral artery lesions”. In 2013, 68% voted against the motion “atherectomy is the answer for the superficial femoral artery technology”.
This year’s vote shows that there is increasing support for atherectomy as a pre-treatment option rather than a definitive treatment and that the technique is clearly currently in favour of being used prior to drug-coated balloon or stents in order to reduce the risk of thrombosis. A member of the audience asked whether atherectomy should be the first option for isolated popliteal lesions considering there was a desire to leave nothing behind. Zeller, responding, said that it was frequently observed that isolated popliteal lesions were focal calcified lesions and for that indication, he considered atherectomy “an excellent first option followed by angioplasty or stenting”. “However, if we are talking about evidence to support this, there is none,” he clarified.
CX delegates at the session also heard updates on the Stanza bioresorbable scaffold (480° Medical) and Shockwave Lithoplasty for calcified artery from Andrew Holden, Auckland, New Zealand.
Stephan Duda, Berlin, Germany, presented the results of the 24-month ILLUMENATE first-in-human study. These showed that the primary patency rate (as measured by Duplex Core lab evaluation) was 80.3% at 24 months. At 12-months, the primary patency rate was 89.5%.
“The freedom from clinically-driven target lesion revascularisation rate (as determined by the clinical events committee adjudication) was 85.8% at 24 months and it was 90% at 12 months,” Duda said.
In the study, researchers evaluated Stellarex in 50 patients with 58 lesions in a cohort that required predilatation with an uncoated balloon before the inflation of the drug-coated balloon. The mean age of the cohort was 69 years. The mean age of patients was 69.0±9.3 years; Thirty four per cent of patients had diabetes and 80% had hypercholesterolemia; Eighty six per cent were Rutherford Class 3 at baseline; the mean lesion length was 7.2cm; nearly 14% had severe calcification and the mean stenosis at baseline was 75%.
The vessel patency was associated with a significant and sustained functional improvement as resulted by the walking impairment questionnaire and by the treadmill test patient subset. There were no cardiovascular deaths or amputations reported throughout the 24-month follow-up schedule in this cohort, demonstrating the high safety profile,” Duda said.
He continued: “This study demonstrates the safety and efficacy of Stellarex for the treatment of femoropopliteal disease up to two years. The primary patency of 89.5% and 80.3% match the highest benchmark of reported rates at one- and two-years respectively. There is also significant functional benefit observed with improved walking distance, observed up to two years.”
Duda told CX Daily News: “Stellarex employs a next-generation manufacturing technology and coating formulation. This combination allows for an effective dose of paclitaxel to be transferred to the treatment site using a low drug dose density of 2µg/mm2. Pre-clinical work has shown this coating results in high coating stability with limited drug loss and an effective amount of drug in the arterial wall through 28 days.”
There is a robust clinical programme for Stellarex that is actively underway and will include up to 1,300 patients in five studies, Duda concluded.
IN.PACT SFA clinical trial update
Gunnar Tepe, Rosenheim, Germany, presented the 12-month results from the pivotal randomised trial evaluating the safety and effectiveness of the IN.PACT Admiral drug-coated balloon.
“IN.PACT SFA is a rigorously designed trial that provides level I clinical evidence supporting the safety and effectiveness of the IN.PACT Admiral when used to treat lesions in the superficial femoral and proximal popliteal arteries,” Tepe said.
The trial is a prospective, randomised, international, 57-site trial comparing the outcomes of treating a lesion with the paclitaxel-coated IN.PACT Admiral vs. standard percutaneous transluminal angioplasty using an uncoated balloon.
A total of 331 patients with claudication or rest pain (Rutherford clinical category 2–4) with single de novo or non-stented restenotic lesions ≥4cm and ≤18cm or chronic total occlusions ≤10cm were randomised 2:1 to drug-coated balloon (n=220) or angioplasty (n=111). Data was independently evaluated by blinded duplex ultrasound and angiographic core labs and by a blinded clinical events committee.
Tepe said: “Baseline clinical, angiographic and lesion characteristics were well balanced between treatment groups. Mean lesion length was 8.94±4.89cm in the drug-coated balloon arm vs. 8.81±5.12cm in the angioplasty arm (p=0.815), representing the longest lesions evaluated to-date in a randomised drug-coated balloon trial.”
A total of 59.3% of lesions in the drug-coated balloon arm were calcified vs. 58.4% in the angioplasty arm (p=0.097), and 25.8% of lesions in the drug-coated balloon arm were total occlusions vs. 19.5% in the angioplasty arm (p=0.222).
“At 12 months, primary patency in the drug-coated balloon arm (freedom from clinically-driven target lesion revascularisation and freedom from restenosis as determined by duplex ultrasound PSVR≤2.4) was superior to the angioplasty arm (89.8% for the drug-coated balloon vs. 66.8% for the angioplasty arm, Kaplan-Meier analysis at day 360 showed that p<0.001). Clinically-driven target lesion revascularisation was statistically lower for the drug-coated balloon arm vs. the angioplasty arm (2.4% vs. 20.6%, p<0.001). Regarding clinical endpoints, we can conclude that patients treated with IN.PACT Admiral perform more favourably than angioplasty in terms of quality of life and walking capacity and angioplasty treated patients require 88% more interventions to achieve the same clinical outcome,” Tepe said.
“Patients are being followed out to five years post-procedure and two-year data are forthcoming,” Tepe concluded.
Dierk Scheinert, Leipzig, Germany, spoke on the topic “New insights from Levant 2 randomised data” that included data from subgroup and post-hoc analysis. “Levant 2 demonstrated superior patency for Lutonix against angioplasty with a 29.4% improved patency over angioplasty. The device was effective in a challenging patient population and showed target lesion revascularisation rates of 89% that were consistent in both the clinical trial and real-world registry,” he said.
Scheinert noted that Levant 2 had demonstrated the safety of Lutonix showing low rates of re-intervention for thrombosis and embolism. “Patients who received Lutonix DCB reported clinical benefits in Levant 2 and showed sustained improvement in Rutherford class and improvement in self-reported walking distance scores” he said.
Fabrizio Fanelli, Rome, Italy, outlined the current status of drug-coated balloon use in the superficial femoral artery. “There are more than 10 drug-coated balloons that are commercially available in Europe. All of them are based on the use of the same drug, paclitaxel, but the dosage is different, varying between 2µg/mm2 and 3.5µg/mm2. Moreover, each drug-coated balloon has a different excipient and a different coating technology,” he said. Most drug-coated balloons have passed their proof-of-concept test, but few have offered high-quality clinical evidence and programmes, even fewer have delivered best-in-class outcome, he emphasised.
Fanelli highlighted that studies such as IN.PACT SFA, LEVANT-2 and ILLUMENATE FIH were all multicentre studies with results that have been validated by independent core labs and that these data were essential in evaluating the quality of evidence and the quality of outcomes. “Only the most reliable data must be taken into consideration. There is no drug-coated balloon ‘class effect’. Each drug-coated balloon is to be judged upon the existence and value of its own data,” he stated.
Drug-coated balloons are cost-effective
Michael Jaff, Boston, USA, told CX 2015 delegates that while there are no prospective data collection studies, two publications have demonstrated that drug-coated balloons are a cost-effective alternative to angioplasty.
Jaff said: “Using current modelling, drug-coated balloons cost the system less than angioplasty, bare metal stents and drug-eluting stents, due to the lower target lesion revascularisation rates. It is critical that future randomised trials of one revascularisation technology include direct measurements of cost of care.”
He told delegates that the future was to be all about economic value and that in the previous week, the US payer system was in the process of reviewing the cost, efficacy and outcomes of all peripheral artery interventions for patients with intermittent claudication.
Jan B Pietzch and colleagues, publishing in Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions (2014), in studying the impact on payers and providers of the four main endovascular strategies for the treatment of infrainguinal peripheral artery disease in the USA and Germany, showed that drug-coated balloons and drug-eluting stents, compared to bare metal stents and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, are associated with lower probabilities of target lesion revascularisation and therefore, cost savings for payers. Another publication, from BC Kearns and colleagues, published in the British Journal of Surgery in 2013, that set out to perform an economic evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of endovascular enhancements to percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty with bail-out bare metal stents for infrainguinal peripheral arterial disease, found that the use of drug-coated balloons represents a cost-effective alternative to the use of angioplasty with bail-out bare metal stents.
Jaff made the point that comparing the cost of using drug-coated balloons with the costs of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, bare metal stents and drug-eluting stents was a “complex proposition”.
“Device costs are only one part of the equation. If the procedure offers greater durability, as defined by reduction in clinically driven target lesion revascularisation, the cost of care for that patient with peripheral artery disease will be lower than a comparable device requiring repeat interventions over a defined period of time,” Jaff concluded.
Direct balloon angioplasty
The panel agreed that more data were needed on whether pre-dilatation was needed before drug-coated balloon angioplasty was performed or not and called for a trial to compare the outcomes achieved with drug-coated balloon use after pre-dilatation to those achieved with direct angioplasty with drug-coated balloon.
Leaving something in
Speaking on the paradigms and importance of lesion lengths and types in the afternoon session on increasing lesion length options and various stent controversies, William Gray, New York, USA, made the point that lesion length is the only clearly identified driver of long-term outcomes. He drew attention to the fact that “Short-term outcomes may also be affected with increasing stent usage with increasing lesion length. Chronic total occlusion and diabetes do not appear to effect outcomes. The calcification grading is problematic, but likely has implications for both short- and long-term outcomes and adjunctive/specialised therapies may mitigate this effect.
Holden noted that five years ago lesion length had had a direct impact on patency with the technology that was available then. “Now with an armamentarium that consists of drug-coated balloons, biomimetic stents, drug-eluting stents, covered stents and atherectomy, we are saying that that paradigm is changing. Are we seeing less impact of lesion length on patency?” he asked. Gray noted that in the main, lesion length was the main driver of patency but that newer technologies and adjunctive therapies could modify the longer lesions in the drug-coated era and that he remained optimistic about this development.
CX’s new Edited Live Case session, which aims to highlight the technical aspects of the aortic and carotid main programme, was launched yesterday with a selection of cases exploring how to apply different techniques in complex situations to achieve the optimum result for the patient.
Roadsaver – Carotid stenting with micromesh
The Roadsaver (Terumo), a self-expanding stent that has a dual layer micromesh design for sustained embolic protection, was used to treat a 73-year-old female with a high-grade symptomatic lesion in the internal carotid artery, Arne Schwindt (Munster, Germany) reported. He explained that she had an ipsilateral Amaurosis fugax eight weeks’ prior to the intervention and computed tomography (CT) angiography and Duplex confirmed a 80% right internal carotid artery stenosis. The patient also had arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and type II diabetes.
Further to a having dual mesh design, Schwindt commented, the Roadsaver has “a flexible weave completely made of nitinol, an extremely flexible delivery system, and is retrievable and repositionable”. He explained that although accessing the lesion was the key challenge in the case, the risk of dislodging the stent’s guidewire system was low because of the system’s flexible delivery system.
According to the six-month follow-up result, the patient had no neurological events during the peri or post procedural period. Furthermore, convergent colour Doppler showed that the stent was patent with vmax of <100cm/seconds (previously, it was 190cm/sec). Schwindt concluded that the stent has “proven good deliverability, wall adaptation, and can be used with a variety of protection devices in challenging anatomies and lesions.”
Relay – Scalloped thoracic graft to the left subclavian artery and branched arch procedure
Mo Hamady and Joost van Herwaarden (London, UK, and Utretch, The Netherlands, respectively) jointly presented the case of a 43-year-old female patient with known hypertension who arrived at the hospital after she fell from steps at home. Because the patient presented with back pain, CT angiography was performed and this showed a non-traumatic saccular aneurysm of the thoracic aorta (ie. ductus diverticulum).
The presenters explained that the 9.5cm type 1 thoracic aortic aneurysm involved type III aortic arch, starting from the level of the innominate artery and extending to the distal thoracic aorta. There were more than 90 degree double bends at the distal end of the aneurysm.
According to van Herwaarden, the distance from the left subclavian artery to the aneurysm was too short for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) below the subclavian artery, and “further the ‘young’, highly curved aortic arch might have caused bird-beaking of a stent graft deployed in the aortic arch”.
Treatment options were TEVAR with covering of the left subclavian artery with or without revascularisation, TEVAR using a custom-made stent graft with a scallop for the left subclavian artery, or open repair.
The Relay (Bolton Medical) device, a custom-made branched thoracic stent graft with proximal scallop, was deployed in the aorta. Bridging stents to the innominate and left common carotid arteries were used to seal the aneurysm. The left common carotid to left subclavian artery bypass was used to revascularise the covered native subclavian artery.
Technical success was achieved and a postoperative CT angiography at one month showed exclusion of the aneurysm with open left subclavian artery and without bird-beak configuration.
Treatment of a chronic type B aortic dissection with Valiant Captivia after ascending aorta and arch surgery
Luigi Lovato (Bologna, Italy) presented the case of a 73-year-old female with a history of hypertension, ascending aorta surgery for aneurysm and chronic type B dissection from middle descending thoracic aorta. The patient was submitted to arch aneurysm surgical replacement. Serial CT imaging showed progressive severe dilation (>5mm/year) of aortic isthmus and middle thoracic aorta false lumen, joining 5.5cm at the level of the big entry tear with appearance of partial false lumen thrombosis.
The patient was considered for TEVAR of both aortic lesions. Lovato said that challenges arose due to the surgical reconstruction anatomy with angulation between the prosthesis and native aneurysmatic aorta and difficult visualisation of the reimplanted epiaortic vessel, creating a relatively short proximal neck, and discrepancy between the proximal and distal neck, because the sinusoidal intimal flap and the relatively distal entry tear forced them to cover the whole thoracic aorta extending next to the coeliac trunk where the true lumen is small.
He said that the Valiant Captivia (Medtronic) stent graft was selected because “it combines a solid capture tip system to obtain a high controlled stent deployment and low risk of wind-sock and bear-beck effect and, at the same time, an optimal hydrophilic delivery system to manage the advancement through a relatively small femoro-iliac access and tortuous aorta”.
During the procedure, Lovato explained, they adopted a different approach, delivering the distal stent graft first to solve the neck discrepancy. The second stent was deployed afterwards, proximally, in the surgical prosthesis and with the distal part inside the first distal stent. The sizing was sorted to achieve the best oversizing in the prosthesis, avoiding type I/III endoleak.
The pre-discharge CT control (six days later) showed an optimal stent graft positioning without type I/III endoleak. A small type II endoleak was visible at isthmic level. There was a moderate retrograde flow from the abdominal false lumen reaching the middle thoracic aorta, but only in the late CT scan.
“The case demonstrates the need for careful planning to meet the anatomical challenges in patients with previous arch surgical reconstructions and the feasibility and safety of this ‘distal first approach’ of TEVAR for type B dissection. This technique can solve the frequent neck discrepancy of these patients avoiding the severe complication of distal false lumen aneurysmal degeneration, caused by the intimal flap rupture induced by the stent graft radial forces,” Lovato concluded.
ZENITH Alpha thoracic endograft
Geert Schurink (Maastricht, The Netherlands) reviewed the case of an 80-year-old female whose thoracic aneurysm was discovered after she underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan for a deep vein thrombosis. He said she was “a very fit” 80-year-old but did have a kyphosis and moderate femoral pulses.
The patient underwent TEVAR with the Zenith Alpha thoracic endograft (Cook Medical). Afterwards, in the recovery unit, mean arterial pressure was >85mmHg and a cerebral spinal fluid drain was not put in because of her concerns about her kyphosis. However, two days after the procedure, she lost sensation in both lower legs and experienced weakness in her left leg. A cerebral spinal fluid drain was put in and her mean arterial pressure was >90mmHg. Schurink reported that the patient made an “almost complete recovery”. He added that he did not believe the loss of sensation was a result of an embolization (in the distal aorta) because if it had been, he said, she would not have made a recovery. Furthermore, there were no signs of emboli on angiography.
After the case was presented, the audience not only discussed when to put in a cerebral spinal drain after TEVAR but also reviewed whether patients were allowed to get too hypotensive compared with their relative baseline pressure.
Nellix – Endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS) with polymer in the aortic sac
In the case that Michel Reijnen (Arnhem, The Netherlands) reported, a 70-year-old male patient, with a cardiopulmonary history, presented with an infrarenal aneurysm with a maximum diameter of 55mm.
The patient was treated using the Nellix endovascular aneurysm sealing system (Endologix). Reijnen explained that Nellix consists of two balloon-expandable endoframes surrounded by endobags that are filled in situ with a biostable polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based polymer to completely fill the aneurysm sac, thus sealing the entire aneurysm.
The case showed that the infrarenal neck diameter and length were respectively 28mm and 35mm. Access was adequate and the calculated volume to seal the aneurysm was 64ml. After a bilateral cutdown, an angiography was performed with a calibrated catheter. Subsequently, two Nellix endosystems were inserted, positioned and deployed. A prefill with saline solution, to a pressure of 180mmHg, was performed showing a complete exclusion of the aneurysm. The saline solution was then replaced by 55mL of polymer to reach a final pressure of 190mmHg. During curing the Nellix balloons were re-inflated.
Completion angiography showed a complete exclusion of the aneurysm with patent renal and hypogastric arteries. Throughout one year follow-up, there were no complications.
Reijnen advised that the “key points for success are case planning and extensive knowledge of the device and technique, which differs from regular EVAR”.
The INCRAFT low profile device introduced percutaneously
A patient with a 55mm aortic abdominal aneurysm was the subject of the case that Hany Zayed, Gianbattista Parlani and Jost Philipp Schäfer (London, UK; Perugia, Italy; and Kiel, Germany, respectively) presented. They reported on how the patient was treated with an Incraft endograft (Cordis).
The procedure was performed under local anaesthesia with a bilateral percutaneous approach. The presented case showed the endograft’s main body delivery and the possibility to reposition the graft, as well as the Iliac limbs implantation accommodating the device into the broad spectrum of maximum and minimum overlapping in order to obtain the correct length of the device to preserve the hypogastric artery.
The completion angiography performed at the end of the procedure showed precise endograft placement with the start of the covered portion of the device immediately below the lowest renal artery and total coverage of both common iliac arteries with preservation of the hypogastric artery.
Parlani noted that the key message of the presentation “is that this ultra-low profile device is designed for proximal and distal placement accuracy and allows for customisation during the procedure to accommodate a wide range of anatomical sizes. This broad anatomical coverage is offered with a minimal number of product codes for easier pre-procedural planning”.
Challenging AAA anatomy treated by Endurant IIs stent graft
Medtronic’s Endurant IIs stent graft has several advantages and benefits for managing patients with challenging anatomy, Johannes Gahlen (Ludwigsburg, Germany) said in his case presentation of a 64-year-old male with an abdominal aortic aneurysm of 5.2cm.
He explained that the device has expanded anatomical customised options, including a 20% reduction in distal diameter compared with select Endurant II bifurcation stent grafts, in-situ sizing with select ipsiliateral limbs, allowing a 3–5 stent overlap for adjustment curing cases, and easier pre-case planning to simplify sizing. It has also has a “better anatomical fit” with “less material encumbrance in tight aortic bifurcations and “better precision in distal landing to avoid type IIb endoleak or unintended coverage of the hypogastric artery.
Gahlen reported that, in the case he was presenting, endovascular aortic aneurysm repair was performed with the graft using the three-piece approach. He described the patient’s anatomy as challenging because there was kinking and stenosis in the left common iliac artery and the right common iliac artery was dilated.
According to Gahlen, the usual practice is to perform the follow-up CT scan at six months, but three-month follow-up was planned for this patient because the device was relatively new.
The Aorfix endovascular stent graft
The patient in the case presentation from Robert Beasley (Miami, USA) was an 81-year-old male with a history of diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, and smoking (he quit in 2009). Beasley commented that the patient was found to have a 7.8 x 7.3 x 10cm abdominal aortic aneurysm with an angle of
He explained that the patient was treated with an Aorfix endovascular stent graft (Lombard). Features of this device include, according to Beasley, radioplaque markers on the stent body graft and legs for “precise positioning”, 8mm sealing zones at proximal distal ends of stent grafts, and a “fishmouth” fixation mechanism (the proximal end of the graft expands into a fishmouth shape). Beasley called this mechanism a “unique design concept” that allows the endograft to be placed transrenally and has four pairs of hooks to “resist migration forces”.
The E-liac device in complex iliac aneurysm
In his presentation, Jost Philipp Schaefer (Kiel, Germany) explained that a 56-year-old male patient developed a dissected iliac aneurysm in the left common iliac artery after undergoing surgical repair of an aortoiliac aneurysm with an aortofemoral (right) and aortoiliac (left) graft interposition.
The dissection caused a severe stenosis at the ostium of the internal iliac artery with symptoms of buttock claudication and erectile dysfunction. Via combined left groin and transbrachial approaches, the dissected iliac aneurysm is repaired by utilising the E-liac device and an E-ventus stent graft (Jotec) as bridging stent. The applicable techniques were demonstrated step-by-step, including the completely percutaneous approach under local anaesthesia, the successive deployment of the iliac-side-branch graft, and the placement of the bridging stent graft.
Schäfer said that this Edited Live Case “demonstrates the technique of endovascular repair of iliac artery aneurysm with the new E-liac device. Available off-the-shelf, the E-liac device is a low-profile iliac-side-branch graft, offering a percutaneous treatment option for a wide range of aortoiliac aneurysmatic pathologies”.
Control of infection with prosthetic grafts: added value of INTEGARD SYNERGY
Jean-Paul de Vries (Nieuwegein, The Netherlands), in his case presentation, explained how the Intergard Synergy (Maquet) graft was used to treat a 62-year-old female with (as identified on CT scan) a mycotic abdominal aorta combined with Leriche syndrome. He explained that the graft was the only one to be loaded with two different antiseptics, adding that these antiseptics (silver acetate and triclosan) are “not limited to one target and do not have the likelihood to produce bacterial resistance”. De Vries added that the graft was “designed for routine prophylactic use” and was not associated with any contraindications for contaminated implant sites.
In this case, the patient was on the hospital ward for 12 days after the operation and received penicillin for eight weeks afterwards. According to de Vries, there was no sign of infection at the two month postoperative CT scan.
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To complement the CX Imaging Day morning session, in the afternoon delegates will have the opportunity to learn about new imaging systems in a hands-on workshop including different imaging modalities used in vascular and endovascular management.
The “Ask the expert” workshop will be held at the GE Healthcare, Hansen Medical, Philips Healthcare and Siemens imaging stands in the Exhibition Hall. Physician-experts in imaging will be giving demonstrations combined with talks focusing on sizing, 2D/3D fusion imaging and how to achieve optimal dose levels.
Imaging industry stands programmes
The programmes at the imaging companies’ stands will combine hands-on demonstrations and talks. They will run from 1:30pm until 5:30pm on Thursday 30 April.
GE Healthcare booth 130
Faculty/demonstrators: Stéphan Haulon, Lille, France and Adrien Hertault, Lille, France
- EVAR procedures: From sizing to fusion
- Achieving optimal dose levels
Hansen Medical booth 221
Programme to be announced
Philips Healthcare booth 318
Faculty/demonstrators: Frank Vermassen, Gent, Belgium and Jim Reekers, Amsterdam, Netherlands
- Vessel Navigator: Learn all about the latest innovation in Live Image Guidance solutions
- 2D Perfusion: Get insight in the latest perfusion angiography solution
- Veradius Unity: Experience the innovative vascular workflow of our newest Mobile C-arm with flat detector
- How to build a Hybrid room: Considerations when purchasing a Hybrid room
Siemens booth 420
Faculty/demonstrators: Dittmar Böckler, Heidelberg, Germany (second speaker TBA)
- Adding smooth to smart in EVAR guidance
- Learn about innovative tools to treat complex endovascular aortic repair cases with confidence
- The new PURE Software for the Artis zeego enables a smooth workflow to use the innovative smart tools at the day of operation
Stéphan Haulon, Richard McWilliams and Alan Lumsden, Faculty members of the CX Imaging Day, new style Parallel Session of the Charing Cross Symposium 2015), outline the relevance of therapeutic imaging for vascular and endovascular procedures, the use of robotics and radiation exposure concerns. These topics will be discussed at the CX Imaging Day on Thursday 30 April.
This year, the CX Imaging Day will provide a comprehensive programme on state-of-the-art imaging applied for the intervention of the aorta, carotid arteries, peripheral arteries and veins, involving planning and using hybrid theatres, robotics, 3D fusion and guidance, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), perfusion angiography, cone beam computed tomography (CT) and carbon dioxide angiography. In the morning, attendees will hear the latest data on high-quality imaging and be able to discuss the different applications. During the afternoon, the “Ask the expert” workshop is organised in the Exhibition Hall with visits to the industry stands, focusing on sizing, 2D/3D fusion imaging and how to achieve optimal dose levels.
Stéphan Haulon (Aortic Centre, Hôpital Cardiologique, CHRU Lille, France), says delegates will get insights from large cohort published studies to identify the various strengths and limitations of high-end imaging. He adds: “We will report the latest progress, provide an update on radiation baseline for various procedures, and see how these new imaging techniques can be extended to peripheral limbs.”
Richard McWilliams (Radiology Department, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK) notes that the immediate and continuing success of endovascular interventions relies heavily on medical imaging. He comments: “The processing power of modern imaging workstations allows the physician to rapidly assimilate the relevant anatomy before intervention. Procedural success is facilitated by the quality of modern hybrid suites and the associated software that accompanies these allowing 3D imaging, 3D fusion and 3D guidance. Surveillance after endovascular treatment is now of higher quality because of improvements in CT scanners and ultrasound techniques including contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Direct comparison of one CT after aneurysm repair with a prior CT is now a joy when these are registered and locked together on dual monitors and reviewed in cine mode.”
Haulon states that the rise of catheter-based procedures and minimally invasive surgery has required concomitant advances in intraoperative imaging applications, and that hybrid rooms have made this possible by combining the mobility and sterility of an optimal open surgical environment with the latest advanced imaging capabilities of a fixed system such as image fusion or cone beam CT. “Experience has shown that the routine use of advanced imaging techniques, such as fusion, during endovascular aneurysm repair has significantly reduced the radiation exposure to patients and operators, as well as the contrast volume load, without jeopardising the overall procedure workflow,” he says.
The role of intraoperative imaging will be also highlighted in the Main Programme – Abdominal Aortic Controversies session (Wednesday 29 April) with a presentation by Dittmar Boeckler on intraoperative CT in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment with EVAR.
The portability of imaging (eg. ultrasound) and the more widespread availability of CT and MRI scans have transformed diagnosis and now the treatment of vascular disease, according to Alan Lumsden (Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, USA). “We are in an era where portability makes imaging technology available in the operating room—image-guided surgery and endovascular surgery. This can be either by direct imaging or increasingly the use of image fusion methodologies.
At the CX Imaging Day, Lumsden will show how the use of robotics can be beneficial for different procedures—carotid, complex cases and even retrieval of inferior vena cava filters. “Navigation through the vascular system depends on the use of wires, catheters and a series of wall interactions with these devices. Such techniques have not fundamentally changed in decades. Catheter robotics promises a level of catheter and wire control that simply cannot be achieved using traditional techniques,” he says. Lumsden explains that his group’s interest in robotics was generated by watching an electrophysiologist take the robotic catheter through the inter-atrial septum, in a beating heart, while applying measured pressure and radiofrequency energy at multiple points, under precise control to the wall of the left atrium. He adds, “It was hard not to be impressed with these capabilities, hence our interest in the peripheral application of robotics. We believe that controlled navigation, stability and pushability of the Magellan catheter (Hansen Medical) will permit us to perform procedures which cannot be completed using manual techniques. Further it will allow us to steer devices which lack sterility (snares, thrombectomy devices, atherectomy catheters), thereby improving their capabilities.”
Haulon will present a new integrated workflow for sizing, 2D/3D fusion and assessment of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). He explains: “Time is crucial, improving vascular surgeon sizing and fusion workflow is key, so why not preparing both steps at the same time? Completion contrast-enhanced cone beam CT has also demonstrated its capacity to assess technical success, reducing the requirement for a postoperative CT angiography and allowing accurate detection of complications requiring additional treatment right on the spot. Also, there is a need to consider radiation dose at a higher level than that of the procedure itself… we need to take into consideration the patient’s dose throughout the entire treatment process, from diagnosis, to treatment and including follow-up. Having the right dose management tools in place allows me to achieve this.” Giuseppe Pannuccio (Muenster, Germany) will be also presenting on the role of 2D/3D fusion imaging in complex aortic procedures.
3D imaging will be further explored by Tara Mastracci (London,UK) who will discuss the role of 3D guidance in fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) and by Frank Vermassen (Ghent, Belgium) who will show how 3D imaging can be used in carotid procedures. Jan Brunkwall (Cologne, Germany) will focus on 3D imaging in complex aortic procedures.
Radiation exposure concerns
Radiation protection remains a major concern and will be one the topics discussed at the CX Imaging Day, and new technology is helping to change behaviour and lower doses, says McWilliams, and adds: “Live dose monitoring provides instant feedback to operators and assistants so that they are aware how their actions increase or decrease dose. Newer equipment is increasingly being designed with dose-saving in mind. Intravascular ultrasound during venous procedures is an important part of this.”
He maintains that “we must also remember the simple things that reduce dose which I see forgotten very commonly. These include increasing the distance from the X-ray source, using face screens, using pump injections rather than hand-injections to allow the operator to increase his/her distance, reducing the pulse rate and frame rate and knowing the relevant projections from the preoperative dataset rather than by trial and error during the procedure. An unfortunate reality is that although modern equipment is capable of exquisite fluoroscopic images, the operator needs to ensure that the images are good enough but not needlessly better than this, to avoid excessive dose to the patient and staff. If the image quality is too good then this is bad”.
Radiation exposure will be also highlighted in the Main Programme – Abdominal Aortic Controversies session with a mini-symposium dedicated to explore radiation reduction strategies for the operator and the patient, including a presentation on dose optimised imaging protocols for complex endovascular procedures by Eric Verhoeven (Nurnberg, Germany). In the Peripheral Arterial Controversies session (Tuesday 28 April) of the Main Programme, Martin Malina (Malmo, Sweden) will be speaking about contrast reduction angiography for peripheral arterial disease.
In the afternoon, delegates will visit the Exhibition Hall (GE Healthcare, Hansen Medical, Philips and Siemens booths) for technology demonstrations.
The New CX Imaging Day will take place at the Charing Cross Symposium on Thursday 30 April – Olympia Room Learning Centre in the morning and Exhibition Hall in the afternoon, Olympia Grand, London, UK.
Click here to see the CX Main Programme Sessions
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Vascular malformations and limb ischaemia: Main topics of the CX Paediatric Vascular Issues session 2015
In 2015, the CX Paediatric Vascular Issues session will host presentations on modern management of childhood vascular disorders with a special focus on vascular malformations and limb ischaemia as well as other pathologies (aortic and arterial). Course directors, Malcolm Simms (Birmingham, UK) and George Hamilton (London, UK), outline the hottest controversies in the field.
Simms says that there are at least three areas of controversy when treating children with vascular issues, “the appropriate management of iatrogenic acute limb ischaemia, the optimal management of vascular malformations and the tailoring of vascular intervention in children to address issues of growth”.
Adding to the current controversies in the field, Hamilton comments: “There is a very low level of training or at the very least understanding of available treatments and protocols in current vascular training programmes throughout Europe. As a result poor treatment and outcomes are common.” He adds, “Paediatric vascular treatment should be delivered in specialist children’s centres.” However, there is still a need to develop such centres to deliver optimal care, he notes.
With regards to improvements in the field, Simms states that the most relevant advance has been the development of smaller calibre angiography catheters and devices. “This has extended the scope of endovascular diagnosis and intervention to smaller children.” Hamilton comments that another relevant advancement is the “growing expertise and confidence in the use of thrombolysis in acute ischaemia with the huge potential to avoid amputation and save limbs.” The understanding of vascular malformations has also been improved with better nomenclature and classification, Simms adds.
The course directors note that acute limb ischaemia treatment is the area that urges most attention in paediatric vascular treatment. Even though there are some advances in the field, there is still a special need to further develop (particularly for children younger than five) small diameter endovascular catheters, wires and absorbable small diameter stents, which seem to offer the best potential for treatment because of growth issues, Simms and Hamilton comment. Simms adds that the management of large diffuse vascular malformations remains “palliative at best”.
Delegates who attend the CX Paediatric Vascular Issues session will learn about the latest treatment methods in the field and will also have the chance to discuss specific examples with case-based presentations.
The CX Paediatric Vascular Issues session will take place at the Charing Cross Symposium on Thursday 30 April (morning) – London Room Learning Centre, Olympia Grand, London, UK.
Click here to see the CX Main Programme Sessions
Click here to see the CX Paediatric Vascular Issues session
Click here to register
The Charing Cross Symposium is looking for paediatric vascular management dilemmas to encourage audience discussion at the CX Paediatric Vascular Issues session.
Clinicians are invited to submit paediatric cases concerning acute or chronic limb ischaemia, trauma, mid-aortic syndrome, cancer resection and vascular malformations.
Format: Cases should be submitted in Powerpoint (maximum three slides or the equivalent to a three-minute presentation). The material should be limited to the case presentation for discussion by the delegates and expert panel – no ‘lectures’ or literature review of the associated condition should be included.
Deadline for submission: 17 April 2015
Please send your cases to: Katherine Pole ([email protected])
Delegates attending the CX Vascular Malformations Management session on Thursday 30 April, in the afternoon, will get a general overview of congenital vascular malformations and will also learn about the latest advancements in the field.
This year, the course will include keynote lectures covering the topics of venous, lymphatic, combined and arteriovenous malformations each followed by case presentations illustrating representative clinical situations. The role of imaging of vascular malformations and treatment options including embolisation, sclerotherapy and laser therapy will be addressed.
The session, led by Iris Baumgartner, Bern, Switzerland, will be interactive allowing the audience to get feedback from a panel, which includes the experts: Raul Matassi, Matthias Widmer, Joe Brookes, Andreas Saleh and Martin Köcher.
The CX Vascular Malformations Management session will take place at the Charing Cross Symposium on Thursday 30 April (afternoon) – London Room Learning Centre, Olympia Grand, London, UK.
Click here to see the CX Main Programme Sessions
Click here to see the CX Vascular Malformations Management session
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In 2015, the Charing Cross Symposium will dedicate, for the first time, four days of discussion in the venous field addressing both the superficial and deep venous systems. The Symposium is also launching a new CX Venous Workshop, formerly named as CX Office-Based Vein Practice Course, which includes hands-on training on the latest techniques for varicose veins treatment and, for the first time, practical training on deep venous treatment.
On the first day (Tuesday, 28 April) upcoming leading vascular and endovascular experts will present cutting-edge venous investigation at a CX Abstracts‒Venous session. Delegates will also have the chance to visit the CX Venous Workshop, which will run on the following days (Wednesday, 29 April and Thursday, 30 April). On the fourth day, the CX Main Programme will be dedicated to Venous Controversies.
Superficial and deep venous treatment at the core of the Venous Controversies
This year’s Venous Controversies in varicose veins treatment are no longer between surgery and office-based techniques, according to Roger Greenhalgh, (Imperial College, London, UK), chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board. “It seems as if office-based vein techniques have swept the board. Now the controversy seems to be about which method to select in which situation,” he says.
Delegates will learn the latest evidence on varicose veins treatment options with thermal and non-thermal techniques. “We will try to present a balance between data and information that relate to office-based tested techniques that are already established and are probably state-of-the-art alongside techniques that are emerging, and that may not have enough data but nonetheless might represent a completely shift in practice. We are happy for people to find out about these new techniques at Charing Cross first,” says Ian Franklin (London, UK), member of the CX Programme Organising Board.
Commenting on non-thermal techniques, Mark Whiteley (University of Surrey, London, UK), also a member of the CX Programme Organising Board, says: “The newer non-thermal techniques are now joining the endovenous thermal ablative devices and starting to show impressive results. The controversy here will be whether these newer non-thermal methods are now able to replace endothermal ablation in some or all cases.” (See an interview with Whiteley on varicose veins treatment).
Sclerotherapy and laser therapy of cosmetic skin problems will also be discussed.
Deep venous treatment is another major topic of controversy at this year’s CX Symposium. Franklin comments: “Deep venous thrombosis treatment is controversial because it is extremely badly managed in many countries and some people get almost no treatment at all. Nowadays, there are new technologies that help physicians treat deep venous thrombosis effectively. There is a lot to achieve in terms of training and education on how to diagnose deep venous thrombosis promptly with the right method of treatment to guarantee durable results.”
Stephen Black (Guy’s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK), member of the CX Programme Organising Board, considers that there is a real need to develop the evidence base for treatment options for deep venous thrombosis. At the session on Deep Venous Controversies, delegates will learn about the latest evidence on the current techniques for deep venous thrombosis treatment including new stents and catheter-directed thrombolysis and thrombectomy techniques. (See an interview with Black on deep venous disease treatment).
Imaging for superficial and deep venous treatment is playing a vital role in the diagnosis of these anomalies. Greenhalgh comments: “It appears that imaging is absolutely at the core of intervention in the superficial and deep venous systems. Unfortunately, venous imaging is less than helpful when the patient lies flat and how to image the deep venous system with the patient standing will be discussed.”
The use of current imaging technologies such as duplex, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) will be discussed at a session dedicated to this field.
New CX Venous Workshop
The former CX Office-Based Vein Practice Course has changed its name to the CX Venous Workshop because it now encompasses all aspects of venous disease including deep vein thrombosis, intravascular ultrasound and deep vein stenting. The course will continue providing delegates with hands-on training sessions for varicose veins treatment. In 2014, it had a record attendance of over 700 delegates during two days.
The CX Venous Workshop is set out in a very flexible format and will run from 10am until 3pm over two days. There will be different training stations (around 30) led by a physician expert who will be demonstrating a wide range of techniques and procedures in different superficial and deep venous treatment techniques. There is not a rigid timetable and participants can choose their timing at their convenience. The course facilitates one-to-one interaction or discussions in small groups.
Key areas covered include:
- Practical training
- Truncal ablation
- Diagnostic venous ultrasound
- Venous haemodynamics
- Thread veins
- Dermal lasers
- Pelvic venous imaging
- Pelvic congestion
- Pelvic veins and haemorrhoids
- Deep vein stenting
- Pelvic vein embolisation
- Endovenous glue
- Wound care
- Varicose veins
- Caval filters
- Intermittent pneumatic compression
- Stockings and bandaging
- Neuromuscular electrical stimulation
- Thrombophilia and DVT Venous malformations
The CX Venous Controversies Day will take place at the Charing Cross Symposium on Friday 1 May – Main Auditorium, Olympia Grand, London, UK.
Delegates will have the opportunity to get hands-on training on the latest techniques for superficial and deep venous system treatment at the CX Venous Workshop on Wednesday 29 April and Thursday 30 April – Gallery Upper Level, Olympia Grand, London, UK
Click here to see the CX Main Programme Sessions
Click here to register
Venous surgeons and phlebologists are spoiled for choice when it comes to office-based technology options for varicose veins. This brings questions such as what technologies are best suited for what patients, what factors should be considered to obtain best results and what is the role of open surgery in the field. Mark Whiteley (University of Surrey, London, UK), member of the CX Programme Organising Board, gives his views on the subject. The latest evidence in this area will be discussed in the Venous Controversies sessions of this year’s CX Main Programme.
Physicians now have a great selection of office-based technologies for the treatment of varicose veins; what method is best for what case?
This has been the major area of my research since starting radiofrequency ablation in March 1999 and it is fair to say that there are many different opinions on this. Most importantly, before this question can even be considered, we need to decide on what constitutes “the best”. In my view, technical perfection is the correct outcome, as this will lead to long-term success and therefore should lead to long-term patient improvement.
However, advocates of techniques with inferior technical results that might require less intervention or fewer injections, point to patient satisfaction as the correct outcome measure to use to assess “the best” treatment method. I believe this is not a good outcome measure to use scientifically. Patient satisfaction can be manipulated by factors other than the treatment itself, particularly by misinformation given to patients in some studies by advocates of one method as to the theoretical risks of other methods that might be used.
In addition, satisfaction has to be measured at one or several points in time—often in the relatively short term. Technical imperfections which are likely to progress to recurrence and reduced patient satisfaction in the long term might be present in the short term. But measuring patient satisfaction alone may miss these out due to the time it takes for the patients to experience the clinical outcomes of the treatment failures.
What factors should be considered to obtain best results in varicose veins treatment?
As with all surgical techniques, there are several factors involved in obtaining the best results. Not only does the technology and device design have to be adequate to the job, but the patient selection needs to provide appropriate cases for the chosen technique and doctors and their teams need to use adequate imaging and procedural technique to get the optimal results.
In addition, patient expectation has to be added, such as whether they are looking for relief of symptoms only or cosmetic perfection and also an acceptable cost for the service.
What office-based technologies are currently showing best results?
Generally, in most hands, endovenous thermoablation shows excellent results for truncal and perforator veins ablation, provided the correct technique is used and an appropriate device for the vein to be treated. Glue and mechanochemical endovenous ablation (MOCA) are starting to show promising results in truncal venous reflux in selected patients whereas foam sclerotherapy is technical disappointing in truncal veins. However, advocates will point to patient satisfaction and re-treatments to argue for its use.
Currently, coil embolisation of refluxing pelvic veins with foam sclerotherapy seems to be the optimal treatment for pelvic venous reflux. Foam sclerotherapy alone or ligation of veins at the pelvic exit points are used by some but need to be proven as effective and acceptable treatments.
For incompetent tributaries and varices, ambulatory phlebectomy is probably optimal for larger veins and foam sclerotherapy for smaller veins— although the new technique of combining both as “foam phlebotomies” is gaining popularity in the USA.
When it comes to neovascular tissue, strip tract revascularisation, feeding veins under patches of telangiectasia and primary avalvular varicose anomalies (PAVA) then foam sclerotherapy is the only effective option.
Finally, for telangiectasia themselves, microsclerotherapy is still the best option as it treats both the visible veins as well as the communicating veins hidden below the surface.
With the outcome of many office-based technologies and their comparable efficacy results with surgery, is there still room for surgery?
Unless one calls ambulatory phlebectomies (surgery), then there is no need to ever perform open surgery for varicose veins anymore. Personally, I have not had to use open surgery for any varicose veins case for over a decade.
At the debate “Duplex scanning is mandatory before treatment of asymptomatic cosmetic thread veins” you will present “For the motion”. Could you tell us the reasons as to why you are supporting this practice?
Since 2001, increasing numbers of research papers have shown that cosmetic thread veins frequently occur in association with underlying venous reflux. In many, if not the majority of cases, this venous reflux leads directly into the thread veins. Furthermore, every case of the complication called telangiectatic matting that I have ever seen after thread vein treatment, has an underlying untreated vein refluxing into the affected patch.
Since instituting a policy of duplex scanning in 2002 in which every patient presenting with cosmetic thread veins of the legs are treated for any underlying venous reflux before proceeding to microsclerotherapy of the thread veins themselves, we have never had a case of telangiectatic matting. Those cases presenting to us with this complication from elsewhere invariably have an underlying vein refluxing into the lesion.
With the explosion of cosmetic clinics starting to offer thread vein treatments, often without duplex ultrasound or even hand held Doppler, it is essential for us as phlebologists and venous surgeons to state that we feel that treatment of thread veins without a duplex ultrasound scan first is a sub-optimal treatment.
The CX Venous Controversies Day will take place at the Charing Cross Symposium on Friday 1 May – Main Auditorium, Olympia Grand, London, UK.
Delegates will have the opportunity to get hands-on training on the latest techniques for varicose veins treatment at the CX Venous Workshop on Wednesday 29 April and Thursday 30 April – Gallery Upper Level, Olympia Grand, London, UK
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The development of new stents specifically designed for deep venous reconstruction, new techniques for lysis and imaging are playing a key role in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis; an area that, according to Stephen Black (Guy’s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK), member of the CX Programme Organising Board, has been largely neglected for years. In this interview, Black, who will be chairing a session dedicated to the deep venous system at the Venous Controversies session of CX 2015, speaks about the advances in the field.
What is the major controversy in deep venous treatment?
The main controversy is still the role of the new venous stents and whether these will really change treatment and outcome for patients with chronic obstructive disease causing post thrombotic syndrome.
What methods are showing optimal results in deep venous reconstruction?
Currently the new techniques for lysis and the development of more robust stents have renewed interest in this area. There is certainly great potential with these new developments; however, we still need to be cautious using them given the real absence of descent data to support how, when and why we treat these patients.
Now more stents have been developed specially for the venous anatomy; what impact have these devices had in the treatment of venous disease?
The new stents for venous treatment have raised awareness and led to a renewed focus on what was a largely neglected area for a number of years. Patients with symptoms after deep vein thrombosis are desperate for treatment and have received the answer of nothing to be done for too long. As a group of clinicians we need to embrace this momentum to see if we can make a difference to this group of patients.
What is the role of imaging in deep venous interventions?
The role of imaging is to try and outline anatomy in the best possible manner. In particular, we need to identify what inflow the patient will have into the area that needs stenting and also whether there is a problem more proximally. It helps to identify if there is an obstructive lesion (i.e. May Thurners/Cockets lesion) and whether the patient may require a purely stent procedure or possibly open surgery or a combination of both.
What imaging methods are showing best results?
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) currently have the greatest potential for diagnosis in deep venous treatment. MRI helps to reduce the radiation dose in what are usually a young group of patients. MRI has also the potential to age clot, which is really exciting (delegates will have the opportunity to learn about this MRI capability at the Venous Controversies of the CX Main Programme). IVUS may also help reduce radiation exposure but also provides significantly more real time detail when treating these patients.
Currently we are limited by the imaging modalities all providing us with static images. We need to develop techniques that help identify what the flow is like in the system and measure pressure.
The CX Venous Controversies Day will take place at the Charing Cross Symposium on Friday 1 May – Main Auditorium, Olympia Grand, London, UK.
Delegates will have the opportunity to get hands-on training on the latest techniques for deep venous thrombosis treatment at the CX Venous Workshop on Wednesday 29 April and Thursday 30 April – Gallery Upper Level, Olympia Grand, London, UK
Click here to see the CX Main Programme Sessions
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Best management of short abdominal aortic aneurysm necks to be highlighted in the CX Abdominal Aortic sessions
The controversy around the treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm necks of less than 15mm will spark the discussion in the Abdominal Aortic Controversies Day of this year’s CX Main Programme. Delegates will also hear the latest evidence on the best way to manage a ruptured aneurysm and will have the opportunity to discuss whether too many patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are being denied intervention. In addition, the controversy regarding radiation damage to the operator and the patient will be addressed and a series of clinical approaches for elective aneurysm repair will be discussed.
“The management of the aortic neck of less than 15mm is certainly very controversial,” says Roger Greenhalgh (Imperial College, London, UK), chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board. Therefore, he comments, “We will try to address every possible way of treatment.”
Commenting on endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for short necks, Andrew Holden (Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand), member of the CX Programme Organising Board, says: “We are aware that using EVAR to treat infrarenal aneurysms with hostile necks has been historically associated with higher aneurysm-related morbidity and mortality. Can new EVAR technologies and techniques change this paradigm?”
Delegates will have the opportunity to hear about the latest evidence regarding EVAR, open surgery and new technologies that are addressing the treatment of infrarenal abdominal aortic neck at the CX Abdominal Aortic Controversies Day (Wednesday 29 April). (Read an interview on the subject with Frans Moll, co-chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board).
Management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms
The latest evidence on the best way to manage a ruptured aneurysm will be presented including the one-year results of the IMPROVE trial and the IPD 3 trial. In the same session, the controversy as to whether many patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are denied intervention will be discussed.
Greenhalgh comments: “Perhaps doctors are becoming more concerned about operating for fear of having poor mortality figures. We need to find evidence whether indeed patients are denied intervention.”
Janet Powell (Imperial College, London, UK), member of the CX Programme Organising Board, considers that a few patients are offered repair of ruptured aortic aneurysm because perhaps “not all centres have an endovascular team and facilities available at all times; additionally, there are financial stringencies on healthcare systems and many of these patients may need intervention out of hours.”
Holden adds that many questions on this subject remain unanswered: “Do we have sufficient data to support an ‘EVAR first’ approach for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm repair patients? If not, who should be offered EVAR? Does the lower early morbidity associated with EVAR mean more ruptured aneurysms should be treated?”
These and other questions will stir a debate on the subject to be led by Matt Thompson (St George’s Vascular Institute, London, UK) and Peter Lamont (North Briston, NHS Trust, Bristol, UK).
Radiation exposure concerns
Additionally, in the CX Abdominal Aortic Controversies Day, strategies for radiation exposure reduction to the operator and to the patient will be discussed in a mini-symposium. Members of the CX Programme Organising Board consider this subject a top priority in the field. Greenhalgh comments: “The risk of radiation damage to the operator and to the patient is now known to be serious and many physicians have damaged themselves trying to treat their patients.” Powell adds: “Many of the early pioneers of EVAR/TEVAR are now dying of cancer. The importance of reducing radiation burden and safety is one of the key contemporary issues that need to be addressed.”
Subsequently, delegates will learn about a series of clinical approaches for elective aneurysm repair including the latest evidence on a new iliac branch endoprosthesis and treatment strategies for octo- and nonagenarians.
Moreover, the long-term follow-up of EVAR after 20 years of introduction will be also addressed. Holden comments: “The optimum follow-up protocol after EVAR is also likely to be controversial. This is an important discussion as post-procedural surveillance is a major cost contributor to EVAR.”
The CX Abdominal Aortic Day will close with a mini-symposium on the management of type I endoleaks.
The CX Abdominal Aortic Controversies Day will take place at the Charing Cross Symposium on Wednesday 29 April – Main Auditorium, Olympia Grand, London, UK
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Frans Moll (University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands), co-chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board, gives his views as to why the management of short necks is a hot topic in the field and discusses the current strategies of treatment. He will moderate the session “Procedures for infrarenal abdominal aortic neck” of the CX Abdominal Aortic Controversies Day.
Why is the management of aortic necks of less than 15mm controversial?
There is still an axiom that durability for proximal fixation of the aortic neck with endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) depends on sealing and fixation, so you do not only need fixation but you also need a certain amount of sealing zone. The critical sealing zone corresponds to one ring of the stent graft. This is usually between 1.2 and 1.5cm in length.
What are the factors that must be considered when treating short infrarenal aortic necks with endovascular approaches?
If you think that the patient will really benefit from endovascular procedures as opposed to open procedures you need to accept shorter necks (>1.5cm in length). The conditions in which it can be accepted are either suprarenal fixation or T-branched.
What endovascular approaches are currently addressing the management of this type of necks?
In shorter stenting we could use sealing prototypes; for example, there is a device that inflates the sealing zone and another one where the polymer is used to fill the aneurysm sac. You could also use a stent graft that is specifically designed for shorter necks (1.5cm up to 1cm). There is also a system that uses endoluminal staples designed to secure the neck.
At the “Procedures for infrarenal abdominal aortic neck” session, physicians will debate whether EVAR is not sensible for abdominal aortic aneurysms with a neck length shorter than 10mm; are you for or against the motion and why?
I think that necks shorter than 10mm can be treated safely with EVAR but you need to consider the latest generation stent grafts. Not every stent graft is able to provide a good result between 8mm and 10mm length.
The CX Abdominal Aortic Controversies Day will take place at the Charing Cross Symposium on Wednesday 29 April – Main Auditorium, Olympia Grand, London, UK
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Type B dissection of the aorta will be the main topic of controversy at this year’s Charing Cross Symposium. Predictions of clinical success after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), factors that predict success after TEVAR for chronic type B dissection, the latest evidence for embolisation of false lumen and spinal cord protection are some of the topics that will be discussed in the CX Thoracic Aortic Controversies Day (Thursday 30 April).
Last year, the majority of delegates who attended a debate titled “For uncomplicated type B dissections, early intervention is indicated” voted against the motion. This year, the debate in this area will assess whether the long-term results following intervention for sub-acute uncomplicated type B dissection warrant intervention.
The Thoracic Aortic Day will also include discussions on the incidence of stroke during aortic arch interventions, treatment options for ascending and arch of the aorta including TEVAR, branched stent grafts for complex arch lesions, open surgery and the use of robotic systems.
Furthermore, amongst the descending thoracic aortic, thoracoabdominal and juxtarenal aortic controversies, the question of threshold diameter for intervention in the thoracic aorta will be raised. Roger Greenhalgh (Imperial College, London, UK), chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board, says: “Evidence for the precise diameter to intervene is extremely sparse and this will be brought out in the session”.
Interview with Andrew Holden, member of the CX Programme Organising Board
Andrew Holden (Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand), member of the CX Programme Organising Board and chairman of the session “Controversies in chronic type B dissection of the aorta” speaks on the subject.
Why is the management of chronic type B dissections controversial?
Currently, this is one of the most important sessions at CX and hopefully some consensus will emerge. There is no doubt that treatment of acute complicated type B aortic dissection is widely accepted. What is less clear is whether uncomplicated type B dissection should undergo endovascular treatment and if so when (acute, sub-acute or chronic). In chronic type B dissection, the biggest challenge is to successfully exclude the aneurysmal component (preventing retrograde false lumen perfusion) and maintain branch artery patency.
What are the factors that must be considered when treating chronic type B dissections?
The common thread when treating chronic type B dissection is to exclude the primary (or inflow) intimal tear. It is then unclear how much aorta needs to be covered and how retrograde perfusion of the false lumen can be avoided. In the dissected and aneurysmal abdominal aorta, the challenge is to exclude the false lumen but maintain branch artery patency.
What challenges in TEVAR have to be overcome in order to avoid complications?
Feared complications in TEVAR include retrograde dissection and spinal ischaemia. A number of strategies have been developed and will be discussed at the CX Thoracic Aortic Controversies Day.
The CX Thoracic Aortic Controversies Day will take place at the Charing Cross Symposium on Thursday 30 April – Main Auditorium, Olympia Grand, London, UK
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With the aim to study key controversies from its Main Programme in technical detail, the Charing Cross Symposium is launching the CX Edited Live Cases, a session that will focus on aortic and carotid procedures. Delegates will have the opportunity to explore the application of different techniques in complex situations, which perhaps could not have been broadcast in a live case because of patient’s safety. Roger Greenhalgh (Imperial College, London, UK), chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board, explains the details of this new session.
Why are the CX Edited Live Cases focusing on the aortic and carotid fields?
The CX Programme Organising Board decided that live cases will be broadcast only in situations where the patient’s life is not at risk and where the surgeon is doing something which is not life-threatening, hence the existence of the CX Live Peripheral Arterial Cases. In peripheral procedures the risk is not as high as in aortic or carotid interventions so we thought it was legitimate to have live cases only for lower limb procedures.
The CX Edited Live Cases are being offered in situations in which the patient’s life or condition could in some way be made worse through having the operator concentrate on filming rather than focusing on the patient. In aortic procedures the slightest slip could be very disastrous for the patient. In this kind of intervention the surgeon requires complete concentration on the patient. Another example is in carotid procedures where there is a risk of embolisation to the brain.
What makes the CX Edited Live Cases different from edited live cases presented at other conferences?
The difference in our Edited Live Cases is that we are relating this session systematically to our Main Programme (Aortic and Carotid) and at all points we will be stressing the evidence that the procedure works. For example, a short presentation in the Main Programme could include a specific device for abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment. In the CX Edited Live Cases that same product can be exposed to show in more detail what is special about it, compared to other aortic devices, and how and why it can be used in that specific case. The topics in the Main Programme normally give the evidence on how to fix a certain condition, but there will always be discussions about why it is thought it works and for the audience to cross question any person. The CX Edited Live Cases will bring an additional space to expand on these discussions and show the technical details.
What kind of procedures should delegates expect to see in the CX Edited Live Cases session?
Delegates should expect to see cases addressing endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS). The cases will include thoracic complex procedures and abdominal procedures of different types. A carotid mesh procedure, which is aimed to reduce embolisation to the brain to prevent stroke, will also be presented. In addition, we are going to have an Edited Live Case about how to control infection, which you could not do in a live case. We will have approximately 10 Edited Live Cases.
Could you explain what the format of the session will be?
Similar to the Main Programme sessions, the panel of the CX Edited Live Cases will include a chairman, the operator in the Edited Live Case, the phycisian who will be explaining it to the audience and two invited discussants. The speaker will present the case including patient characteristics, reason for the procedure, the necessary investigation undertaken (eg. X-rays), the choice of devices available, the strategies of treatment proposed and all of the pitfalls and concerns raised before the procedure.
After this presentation, a 10-minute edited video will be presented. In order to allow room for discussion about a specific technique the video could be stopped—this is an added benefit you could not have in a live case presentation. This approach will help to improve the educational basis of this session. After that, the aim will be to engage the audience in discussion.
Delegates will also have the opportunity to see these cases post Charing Cross 2015 from a video library that will be created from this initiative.
The CX Edited Live Cases (Aortic and Carotid) will take place at the Charing Cross Symposium on Tuesday 28 April – Grey Learning Centre, Olympia Grand, London, UK
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Strategies for treatment of the superficial femoral artery with the concepts of “Leaving nothing behind” or “Leaving something in” will take centre stage in the Peripheral Arterial Controversies session of this year’s CX Main Programme. In addition, delegates will hear about early clinical outcomes with a new flexible endoluminal stent for iliac artery disease. The treatment of popliteal aneurysms by endovascular means will also be subject of discussion, as well as the best treatment options for below-the-knee lesions.
Roger Greenhalgh, chairman of the CX Programme Organising Board, says that the session aiming at “unpacking” the superficial femoral artery will be one of the highlights of the CX Peripheral Arterial Day in the Main Programme (Tuesday 28 April). “We will try to inform the audience about what to do in the superficial femoral artery and when, depending on the type and length of lesion and based on the available evidence.” He adds, “The speakers will consider more severe arterial disease which in their view requires a stent. If something is to be ‘left behind’ this needs to be justified”.
Commenting on the “Leaving nothing behind” concept, Cliff Shearman (University of Southampton, Southampton, UK), member of the CX Organising Board, says: “This is a great idea but the technology (drug-coated balloons, atherectomy) is expensive and we have to see the evidence on how much benefit it does give and for how long.”
Moreover, attendees will learn the results, at five years, of the superficial femoral artery treatment with open surgery.
Delegates will also have the opportunity to discuss in more detail the superficial femoral artery controversies on Thursday 30 April in two roundtables to be held at the CX ilegx Collaboration Day course.
Furthermore, in the CX Peripheral Arterial Day, iliac reconstruction will be addressed with early clinical outcomes of a new flexible endoluminal stent graft. Additionally, the treatment of popliteal aneurysms by endovascular means will be subject of discussion. Commenting on his view on the topic, Shearman says: “Although this is commonly advocated we need to see the long-term results. Also we need to ask ourselves, ‘How many popliteal aneurysms are really suitable for endovascular treatment’?” Physicians will have the chance to discuss their views during this debate at the end of the session.
Below-the-knee treatment options and their effectiveness will also be discussed. Michael Edmonds, member of the CX Organising Board, says: “Addressing below-the-knee intervention strategies is of great importance considering the dramatic rise in the incidence of diabetes mellitus.” Greenhalgh adds: “The below-the-knee arteries are smaller and have difficult technical challenges—the durability of the procedures is seldom stated longer than for two years.”
When treating patients with peripheral arterial disease Greenhalgh says, “advising the patient on self-management including smoking cessation, exercise and healthy living is fundamental”. The second principle, he adds, is to intervene only when it is necessary and avoid making the patient worse. And finally, it is necessary to intervene with a technique as minimal as possible and that can produce durable results. “In the end, it is the patient’s quality of life that matters and if the arterial disease is overcome the symptoms should improve,” he notes.
The CX Peripheral Arterial Day will take place at the Charing Cross Symposium on Tuesday 28 April – Main Auditorium, Olympia Grand, London, UK
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The CX ilegx Collaboration Day course has been designed to update attendees on the latest treatment strategies developed to avoid the increasing number of unnecessary lower limb amputations—flagship principles of the ilegx initiative. Delegates will learn about the King’s College Hospital open access vascular diabetic foot care pathway—an effective approach which incorporates early diabetic foot referral and interdisciplinary work—which is showing promising results saving limbs.
Delegates will also hear about revascularisation strategies of the ischaemic foot with the latest data in the field; and will have the opportunity to discuss in more detail, in two roundtables led by experts, the controversy of “Leaving something in” or “Leaving nothing behind” in the superficial femoral artery. This subject will be exposed in the CX Main Programme – Peripheral Arterial Controversies (two days before ilegx).
In the commentary below, Michael Edmonds (King’s College Hospital, London, UK), who is one of the founders of ilegx and co-director of the CX ilegx Collaboration Day course, explains the King’s College Hospital pathway. He also writes about the value of endovascular techniques for diabetic foot care and critical limb ischaemia treatment.
This is followed by an interview with Cliff Shearman (University of Southampton, Southampton, UK), co-director of the ilegx Collaboration Day. He talks about what he believes the take-home message from this year’s CX ilegx Collaboration Day will be.
Commentary by Michael Edmonds, ilegx course director
Early referral, fast track care and multidisciplinary work: Key approach to save limbs
The ilegx Collaboration Day will include an account of a modern successful approach to the diabetic ischaemic foot in the King’s College Hospital (London, UK) open access vascular diabetic foot care pathway, which has resulted in greater than 90% limb salvage rate.
This approach is based on a new understanding of the natural history that has led to a novel classification of the ischaemic diabetic foot, emphasising the importance of the diabetic neuroischaemic foot as well as the critically ischaemic foot. This pathway is operated by an interdisciplinary team comprising surgeon, physician, podiatrist, nurse and orthotist and provides integrated care focused on a diabetic foot clinic. The diabetic foot can deteriorate with alarming speed and for this reason the clinic provides open rapid access to accelerate urgent assessment and to proceed quickly to state-of-the-art interventions in the revascularisation of not only the critically ischaemic foot but also the neuroischaemic foot. This includes prompt decision making within the interdisciplinary team as to proceed to endovascular or open vascular surgery (or both in a hybrid technique), involving revascularisation of both legs and increasingly, pedal arteries. The diabetic neuroischaemic foot is particularly characterised by ulceration and complicating infection and within this interdisciplinary diabetic foot service, modern techniques in wound care and aggressive treatment of infection with surgical debridement and parenteral antibiotics are also important.
The value of endovascular techniques for diabetic foot care and critical limb ischaemia treatment
There is a crucial role for endovascular techniques to revascularise the foot, whether it is to restore blood flow in order to help diabetic ulcers to heal, or longer-term as a treatment for critical limb ischaemia.
It is agreed that the critically ischaemic foot should be urgently revascularised so as to save the limb either by endovascular procedures or open vascular surgery. However, controversy exists when there is a diabetic patient with a neuroischaemic foot ulcer that is not healing in a moderately ischaemic limb. These patients are often not getting the benefit of endovascular procedures in a timely fashion.
Although the neuroischaemic foot would not have got into trouble unless it had been subjected to minor trauma—which is often unsensed because of nerve damage—it is important to understand that, having got into trouble, the ulcer cannot be healed because the blood supply to the foot cannot be increased. Thus there is a crucial role for below-the-knee endovascular procedures to improve the blood supply, even if it is a temporary increase, to get such ulcers healed. Once such ulcers are healed it will not matter if subsequently there is restenosis.
Interview with Cliff Shearman, ilegx course director
In this year’s CX iLegx Collaboration Day, what do you think the take home message will be?
Shearman: Avoiding amputation is relatively easy; it is about early treatment and not ignoring the problem. The biggest barrier to success is poor organisation and lack of awareness of the seriousness of the problem. Solving the problem improves outcomes, improves quality of care and saves a lot of money.
This year’s ilegx roundtables will discuss revascularisation strategies in the superficial femoral artery; do you believe you should “Leave nothing behind” or “Leave something in”?
Shearman: Better understanding of the biology of diabetic vascular disease will lead to better therapies. While it is appealing to consider therapies, which do not leave anything behind, we have to understand what the main effect (short- and medium-term) of an intervention is on the plaque to design the optimum therapy.
The ilegx initiative, launched in 2008, was created in response to the increasing number of lower limb amputations which are mostly due to type II diabetes.
ilegx is a collaboration of like-minded health professionals, patients and care workers who share the view that too many legs are amputated and many of these are completely unnecessary.
The ilegx mission is to attract attention and draw awareness to the need for an improvement in health care in order to lower unnecessary major amputation of legs.
The CX ilegx Collaboration Day will take place at the Charing Cross Symposium on Thursday 30 April – Grey Learning Centre, Olympia Grand, London, UK
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This year, the Charing Cross Symposium is launching the CX Live Case method. Thomas Zeller (Universitäts-Herzzentrum Freiburg – Bad Krozingen, Bad Krozingen, Germany), course director of the CX Live Peripheral Arterial Cases, will link the live case demonstrations from Bad Krozingen with topics to be discussed in the CX Main Programme – Peripheral Arterial Controversies at the Charing Cross Symposium 2015.
Starting with shorter and simpler lesions, Zeller and his team will aim to demonstrate the value of drug-coated balloons against plain old balloon angioplasty. Beyond this, longer and also calcified arterial stenoses will be tackled. The audience will see which stents are selected, and whether atherectomy pre-stent is thought to be beneficial. Zeller will show which stent devices can reach longer lesions and into the popliteal artery, and which require pre-treatment with adjunctive therapies. The value of drug-eluting stents will also be demonstrated, and the management of in-stent restenosis and its correction by mechanical means will be shown.
In this interview, he explains the value of live case presentations at conferences and the importance of relating the CX Live Peripheral Arterial Cases to the topics of the CX Main Programme – Peripheral Arterial Controversies, and encourages audience interaction in this session.
What are the benefits of including live case presentations in medical conferences?
Live case presentations—provided they are unbiased—support the transfer of clinical science into clinical practice. New technologies and treatment algorithms can be demonstrated (supplementing talks and roundtable discussions) and the potential limitations and advantages in daily routine can be highlighted. With live case presentations; conference audience gets a better and practical impression of how new technologies can be implemented in the interventionalist’s routine.
What are the benefits of having the CX Live Peripheral Arterial Cases relate to what is discussed in the CX Main Programme – Peripheral Arterial Controversies?
The attendee gets immediate insights into the clinical application and potential pitfalls of new interventional strategies, which have been discussed in the CX Main Peripheral Programme (The CX Main Programme – Peripheral Arterial Controversies will take place on 28 April 2015, a day before the CX Live Peripheral Arterial Cases). Every new technology imposes a learning curve which might become shortened if the attendee gets advice from experienced operators who have already gained experience in the application of interventional strategies or use of those new technologies.
The live cases for the Charing Cross Symposium have been selected based on the topic of a given session to enable the panel and audience to discuss these topics with the operators.
The CX Main Programme – Peripheral Arterial Controversies dedicates a session to the discussion of revascularisation strategies in the superficial femoral artery; which key controversies will you try to shed light on with the CX Live Peripheral Arterial Cases session in this field?
In the CX Peripheral Live Cases, the main issue of controversy to discuss is the potential role of drug-coated balloons and drug-eluting stents for the treatment of the superficial femoral artery. We will analyse whether (or not) these devices are worth the costs compared to standard treatment (plain old balloon angioplasty and bare metal stenting). Moreover, the role of spot stenting in a drug-coated balloon setting will be discussed and finally the potential role of vessel preparation prior to the use of drug-eluting technologies.
What techniques and technologies will be demonstrated at the CX Live Peripheral Arterial Cases session?
We will show interventions dealing with drug-coated balloons and provisional stenting, stenting of kink zones, vessel preparation with debulking devices, how to treat in-stent reocclusions, etc.
The CX Symposium advocates strong audience interaction; how will you encourage participants’ interaction in the CX Live Peripheral Arterial Cases session?
Audience interaction has to be pushed by the moderators and panellists. We as operators will be open to questions from the audience and we will also invite the audience to express their own experiences with the interventional techniques, which will be shown during the live case transmissions.
The CX Live Peripheral Arterial Cases session will take place at the Charing Cross Symposium on Wednesday 29 April – Grey Learning Centre, Olympia Grand, London, UK
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Benjamin Starnes (Seattle, USA) told the audience attending yesterday’s mini symposium on acute aortic transection that intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was an important tool in the management of patients with blunt aortic injury undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) because it helps to ensure accurate sizing of the endograft and prevent rupture. The session also reviewed the differences between image-based classifications of blunt aortic injury.
Starnes reported that, over the past decade, endovascular repair of patients with blunt traumatic aortic injury has become the “predominant approach to fixing these injuries”, but added that there were “unique challenges” to using the endovascular approach. He said: “One of challenges is the dynamic nature of the aorta. There are some interesting data from blood-letting studies in Yorkshire pigs that show significant decrease in aortic diameter accompanying induced haemorrhagic shock, with a dose-dependent effect.”
According to Starnes, aortic diameter is also known to increase after resuscitation and the area with the greatest change in size is the area that is most commonly injured in blunt trauma (ie. the isthmus and descending aorta). He added: “CT angiography is used for diagnosis of these injuries and axial slices from the initial scan are often used for planning and sizing of the repair. While using IVUS at the time of repair to better characterise the injury, we noticed a difference in the aortic diameter with systolic variation [compared with the diameter observed on the initial CT angiography]. This then begs the questions “Is initial CT angiography appropriate for sizing the endograft in these patients?” and “Is that endograft going to be undersized once that patient is fully resuscitated?”
Starnes and colleagues, therefore, conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with blunt aortic injury who underwent TEVAR at their level-one trauma centre to determine if there was a difference between the aortic diameter observed on diagnostic CT angiography and that observed on IVUS at the time of the repair. The inclusion criteria were initial admission or pre-admission CT angiography, IVUS at the time of repair, and a post-implant CT angiography. Of the 26 patients who were treated at the centre during the study period (July 2007–July 2011), three patients did not have post-implant CT angiography information, one patient was converted to surgery, and six patients did not receive IVUS—leaving 16 patients available for assessment.
There was a significant difference of 2.4mm between mean aortic diameter with initial CT angiography and mean aortic diameter with IVUS: 21.7mm vs. 24mm, respectively (p=0.004). Starnes noted: “When we look at post-implant CT angiography compared with initial CT angiography, there is again a highly significant difference of 3mm (p=0.0001). But, when we compared post-implant CT angiography with IVUS, there was no difference.” He added that when they reviewed theoretical graft diameters, there was a significant difference of 2.4mm (p=0.003) between the size of the graft that would be chosen based on the initial CT angiography and that based on IVUS at time of repair. There was also a significant difference in graft size between post-implant CT angiography and initial CT angiography (3mm; p=0.0002), but no difference in size between post-implant CT angiography and IVUS.
“I believe IVUS is a critical and important tool for the management of patients with blunt aortic injury,” Starnes concluded.
Ali Azizzadeh (Houston, USA) also presented data at the mini symposium, reviewing the long-term effects of intentional stent graft coverage of the left subclavian artery (in patients with blunt aortic injury undergoing TEVAR). He said that in a review of 82 patients undergoing TEVAR at his centre between September 2005 and July 2012, 50 received intentional stent graft coverage of their left subclavian artery. Azizzadeh reported: “Intentional coverage of the left subclavian artery during TEVAR for blunt aortic injury appears safe without compromising mental or physical health outcomes. Furthermore, left artery stent coverage does not increase the long-term risk of upper extremity symptoms or impairment of normal activities.”
Does intramural haematoma exist?
As well as presenting data for the role of IVUS in the management of patients with aortic, Starnes also reviewed the classification of the injury. He reported that he and his colleagues developed a new image-based classification system for these types of injury because they believed the current classification system, by the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS), was “lacking”. Starnes explained: “The SVS system has four grades of injury—grade one, intimal tear; grade two, intramural haematoma; grade three, pseudoaneurysm; and grade four, rupture—but does not provide for any treatment recommendations because grades one to three are treated the same and we do not believe grade two exists. In a review of 140 aortic transections at our centre, we did not see a single case of intramural haematoma.”
Therefore, they developed a new classification system based on the presence or absence of an aortic external contour abnormality. Under this new system, intimal tear (intimal defect and/or thrombus of
However, Michael Dake (Stanford, USA) commented that there was a lack of consensus surrounding intramural haematoma as unlike Starnes and colleagues, Rabin and colleagues did recognise the existence of intramural haematoma and classified it as being a “grade one” injury (in contrast to the SVS classification). He added that Osgood and colleagues, in an another system, classed intramural haematoma as being “grade 1B” but he noted that they did not find any patients with that type of injury in their series. Dake reported, regardless of how it was classified, recent publications have suggested that: “Intramural haematoma without associated peri-aortic component, contour abnormality, or pseudoaneurysm may be conservatively managed with appropriate follow-up imaging.”
The CX Great Debate saw Peter Taylor, London, UK, and Richard Gibbs, Imperial College, London, UK, persuaded 71% of the audience at the Charing Cross International Symposium yesterday to vote for their position against the motion “For uncomplicated type B dissections, early intervention is indicated”.
Their opponents in the debate, Christoph Nienaber, Rostock, Germany, and Jan Brunkwall, Köln, Germany, had the support of 29% of the audience. Audience discussion at the end of the session identified a need for a larger randomised trial with long-term follow-up that had clinically meaningful endpoints.
Nienaber and Brunkwall set out to persuade the audience that placing a stent graft early was important in order to heal the aorta. “Rupture, malperfusion, hypertension and down the line, aneurysm formation are some of the risks of type B dissection,” Brunkwall said.
Nienaber made the point that scaffolding was the only way to stabilise the progression of the dissection as data available so far showed that the disease is characterised by a downhill evolution over time. “If there is no scaffold, and the aorta is not remodelled, you are confronted with ongoing attrition rate in terms of cardiovascular death and progression of the disease. This is beneficial for even in so called stable or clinically silent patients,” he said. He made his views clear that no dissection was ever uncomplicated.
“Only pre-emptive stenting will ensure long-term remodelling and stability. Only remodelling stabilises the aorta and no drug that induces remodelling, only the likelihood of rupture, so supportive scaffolding should be offered to any type B dissection,” Nienaber said.
“What do we achieve with TEVAR in the setting of type B acute dissections? Fewer later interventions and lower mortality after five years,” Brunkwall said. The five-year long-term follow-up of the INSTEAD XL showed a statistically significant reduction in aorta-specific mortality and a statistically significant reduction in disease progression in favour of the combined TEVAR plus medical therapy arm.
Brunkwall also made the point that the ADSORB trial with false lumen thrombosis as an endpoint, had shown that patients receiving TEVAR have significantly more complete and partial thrombosis than the ones getting best medical therapy.
The ADSORB trial was a prospective randomised trial to compare TEVAR with best medical therapy in patients with acute uncomplicated type B aortic dissection. At the follow-up for one year, there was no death stroke or paraplegia in either group at 30 days and aortic remodelling at one year favoured the intervention but it did not reach statistical significance.
Taylor and Gibbs based their arguments around the fact that medical treatment is getting better. Briggs noted that a recent study (Fattori et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;61:1661-78) had shown that survival at five years without intervention is 70–89%. They also highlighted the fact that TEVAR carries risks including retrograde dissection; stroke (3%); paraplegia (2.5%) and other complications. The team stated that all current endografts used in dissection are designed for use in aneurysms.
“There is no adequate evidence to recommend early intervention in all but a few patients with uncomplicated type B dissection. Only a small subgroup at high risk of aortic expansion will benefit from early intervention and these patients can be identified using techniques such as functional imaging,” Briggs said
Taylor also attacked the quality of evidence from randomised controlled trials that supported early intervention. “The ADSORB trial had only 61 patients in total. It was underpowered and stopped at one year and was therefore too short and small to answer questions about survival and efficacy. The INSTEAD trial had only 140 patients in total and underpowered for survival. In total, there have been only 201 dissection patients ever randomised,” he said.
Taylor made the point that drug therapy was getting better and that the available evidence showed that the majority of patients are alive with medical treatment; there is 80% survival at five years and that therefore, medical treatment was safe for the majority of patients with uncomplicated type B dissection. They do not need early intervention and there is an early mortality associated with TEVAR that cannot be ignored, he said.
A member of the audience noted that in order to make a clinical difference, all-cause mortality has to be the only endpoint at five years and the trial should be designed to show superiority. Martin Bjorck, Uppsala, Sweden, also commented on the difficulty faced in every day clinical practice. “There is a problem because we know from the data from the two randomised trials that it is rather safe to do TEVAR, but that there is a 3–5% risk of very serious neurological complications that cannot be discounted. We know from the long-term results of the INSTEAD trial that if you do not treat, you have many patients developing dilatations and needing treatment later on that is more complicated. We need a larger randomised trial with long-term follow-up.”
CX voting results
Earlier in the session, 65% of the CX audience had voted that registry data is now irrelevant and that it was time that randomised trial evidence for TEVAR dissection became available. Nearly 80% also believed that aortic intervention for acute dissection should only be performed in recognised vascular centres with cardiothoracic surgery on site.
Michael Dake, Stanford, USA, outlined the first experiences with the Gore TAG (W L Gore) thoracic branch endoprosthesis and Frank R Arko, Charlotte, USA, presented on the MONA LSA (Medtronic) branched device results at a session yesterday. Both speakers shared early cases and their results.
Thoracic aortic aneurysms that involve the left subclavian artery often leave physicians no choice but to use surgical techniques or to cover the branch vessel. “Although reports from single-centre experience with the hybrid approach have been positive, a single branch thoracic endograft specifically designed for treatment of the aortic arch (Zone 0–2) could be useful in extending the advantages of endovascular repair to the aortic arch. As such, the Gore TAG Thoracic Branch Endoprosthesis is designed as a modular system which allows for treatment of aortic arch pathologies using a less invasive hybrid endovascular approach,” Dake said.
He presented on the Zone 2 US investigational device exemption feasibility trial that will enrol 20 to 40 patients at six sites. Patients will be followed for five years. The study will evaluate the device for the treatment zone 2 aneurysms.
The Gore TAG thoracic branch endoprosthesis has a modular construction design with off-the-shelf components. It has an inner lumen for anchoring and sealing the branch component. The complete system consists of aortic and branch components designed for the use in the arch, and also the accompanying accessory devices to facilitate delivery.
“The system is easy to use with a single femoral access and requires minimal catheter manoeuvres. It is safe with zero ischaemic time and has low risk of branch vessel coverage. After the first four cases, successful access and deployment of the endoprosthesis was seen in all cases. There was one procedural type 1 endoleak that resolved without re-intervention at one month. There were no device-related endoleaks, but one type 2 endoleak was seen at one month. There were no deaths or neurological events. There were no site reported serious adverse events related to the device,” he said.
Dake explained that the procedure to deploy the device included inserting the guidewires in aorta and branch vessel; introducing the aortic component over both guidewires into position within the arch; deploying aortic component and withdrawing catheter; advancing the introducer sheath and dilator and advancing and deploying branch component.
In order to be enrolled, patients had to have descending thoracic aortic aneurysms requiring placement of the proximal extent of the aortic stent graft in Zone 2. The primary endpoints of the study were: successful access and deployment of the thoracic branched endograft and the primary patency of the side branch assessed by angiography when the procedure finishes. The secondary endpoints included a one-month core lab analysis, assessing the side branch primary patency and device-related endoleaks.
Arko told delegates that there was a clinical need for left subclavian artery preservation in association with encroaching thoracic artery aneurysm. He presented the current status of an early feasibility trial in the FDA’s new innovation pathway testing the Valiant Mona LSA device.
The key goals of the trial are to validate the procedure in humans; assess the safety and performance acutely and at 30 days and collect imaging data to augment the current understanding.
Arko told delegates that the Valiant Mona LSA Thoracic Stent Graft consisted of a flexible cuff “volcano” on the main body. The system is a two-graft system and the main graft system comes in diameters between 30 and 46mm and in the single length of 15cm. It is a two-wire system as well and the secondary wire can be snared and then the second branch is brought up and deployed. The branch graft itself is made of a nitinol helical wire and polyester fabric. It has a proximal flare. The branch graft is always 40mm in length and a 15F profile, femoral access system.
The early feasibility trial is a prospective, non-randomised, three-centre, premarket clinical study that has enrolled nine patients. The primary safety and effectiveness objectives were measured acutely and at 30 days. “The follow-up schedule will be at 0-30 days, six months, 12 months and annually through five years,” Arko said.
The principal investigators are Eric E Roselli, Cleveland, USA, Frank R Arko, Charlotte, USA and Matt Thompson, London, UK.
Arko revealed that the current status of the early feasibility trial had seven patients enrolled as part of the US cohort and two enrolled as part of the cohort outside the US. One emergent case had been enrolled in the USA, outside of trial. Acute procedure results from all seven patients revealed 100% technical success and 100% patency in both main and branch stent graft. There were no type I or III endoleaks.
“All current devices need a healthy landing zone to seal. To achieve sufficient landing zone, the left subclavian artery may be sacrificed with resulting complications, such as 6% arm ischaemia, 4% spinal cord ischaemia, 2% vertebrobasilar ischaemia, 5% anterior circulation stroke and 6% death. Left subclavian artery preservation is recommended in the literature. 17–43% of patients undergoing TEVAR have planned coverage of the left subclavian artery to achieve an adequate proximal seal and the coverage of the left subclavian artery without revascularisation is the single most important predictor of post-TEVAR stroke,” Arko said.
CX ilegx Collaboration Day hosts Endovascular Electronic Education and focuses on key approaches to save limbs
At the ilegx Collaboration Day, attendees learnt about the best management therapies for diabetic foot care and vascular reconstruction in critical limb ischaemia patients and for the second year running, the symposium broadcast edited live cases treating superficial femoral artery lesions to the Far East and North America in an event named Endovascular Electronic Education, sponsored by Abbott Vascular.
In the morning, three edited live cases were showcased to the Far East. The first case was performed by Andrej Schmidt in Leipzig, Germany, the second procedure was carried out by Peter Goverde in Antwerp, Belgium, and the third case was performed by Josef Tacke in Passau, Germany. The Abbott Supera stent system was used to treat occlusion and total occlusion of the superficial femoral artery and proximal popliteal artery.
Schmidt, Goverde and Tacke were present to answer questions from the audience at CX and those watching the live broadcast in the Far East.
Responding to questions about how a physician chooses a stent, Schmidt said: “In some cases it is clear—if it is a calcified lesion, for me it is clear that a drug-eluting balloon might not be so good, we know this from our data, and the Supera stent is the stent of choice.” He added that more data are required to make the stent selection process more comprehensive.
In the afternoon, edited live cases were broadcast to North America.
Early referral, fast track care and multidisciplinary work: key approach to save limbs
The ilegx initiative, launched in 2008, was created in response to the increasing number of lower limb amputations which are mostly due to type II diabetes. Michael Edmonds (London, UK) who is one of the founders of ilegx, introduced the “diabetic foot care” session, which was organised in conjunction with the King’s College Hospital Open Access System, with a presentation which highlighted the importance of early diabetic foot referral and interdisciplinary work as an effective approach to reduce the number of lower limb amputations, flagship principles of the ilegx initiative. He said: “Up until recently, the diabetic ischaemic foot has defeated every health care system in the world. However, a strategy which combines early referral and interdisciplinary working has led to improvements in care.” With this in mind, he commented, “ulcers can now be healed and amputations can be prevented.”
Edmonds also referred to the importance of organising a “fast-track” service in a “one-stop” visit, comprising clinical assessment, same-day investigations and urgent management to treat infection and revascularise the foot, when dealing with cases of “diabetic foot attack.” “This is best carried out in a diabetic foot clinic which can see the ischaemic patient in an open access system without delay and has rapid availability of debridement and intravenous antibiotics to treat infection and control the septic vasculitis.” He also said that diabetic foot patients who experience repeated crises from the rapid onset of infection need a special form of such easily accessible care provided by the diabetic foot clinic. “Such integrated fast track care can rapidly restore the circulation, limit tissue necrosis, save the limb from amputation and provide complete recovery from the foot attack,” he commented.
An interdisciplinary team including podiatrists, nurses, orthotists, microbiologists, interventional radiologists and surgeons—including vascular surgeons, orthopaedic surgeons and plastic surgeons—is the ideal team required in the management of diabetic foot, Edmonds noted.
He also mentioned that to complete an effective management of diabetic foot, follow-up and rehabilitation are required.
Interdisciplinary views on diabetic foot care
A vascular surgeon, an interventional radiologist and a podiatrist from King’s College Hospital, London, UK, shared with CX delegates their best practices treating diabetic foot.
Vascular surgeon Hisham Rashid, said that “the incidence of type II diabetes mellitus is increasing across the world with an expected rise in 2030 to more than 12% in a large population of the world.”
This is a worrying figure taking into account that “a major amputation rate is significantly higher in diabetic patients,” he noted.
Rashid told CX delegates that aggressive revascularisation with angioplasty, bypass or hybrid techniques is essential for limb salvage and reduction of major amputation rate. He mentioned that at King’s College Hospital, 77% of cases are treated with angioplasty and 23% with distal bypass. He said that distal bypass surgery “plays a major role in revascularisation, especially in patients presenting with significant tissue loss and when angioplasty is not feasible.” Hybrid techniques in “no-option” critical leg ischaemia have also proven very effective in preventing major amputation in this challenging group of patients, he commented.
At King’s, Rashid noted, revascularisation using distal and ultra-distal bypass has a very good outcome with a one-year amputation rate of 3.4% and 30-days mortality rate of 1.5–1.7%. At one-year, “mortality is significantly influenced by end-stage renal failure and age rather than diabetes mellitus,” he said.
Interventional radiologist Dean Huang, said that the concept of “foot attack” and “time is tissue” in diabetic patients means that treatment of an infected ulcer should be handled as an emergency with the management of a multidisciplinary team. At King’s College Hospital, “we follow this approach; we work on the basis of rapid access to diagnosis, rapid access to intervention and follow-up of interventional and surgical procedures.” From the interventional radiologist perspective, he said, “rapid access to imaging diagnostics enables the selection and planning of the optimal strategy.” Ultrasound, CTA and MRA have their place and angiography remains the gold standard, he commented. “Prompt definitive treatment with radiological intervention and/or surgical bypass to revascularisation for healing in conjunction with wound care and antibiotics is the key to achieve prevention of amputation,” Huang noted. “The threshold of what can be treated with endovascular procedures is shifting as more sophisticated devices appear on the market.”
Podiatrist Jennifer Tremlet, spoke about the different techniques used at King’s College Hospital to heal diabetic foot wounds. “Diabetic foot patients are complex cases, they experience extensive tissue loss and infection. In order to achieve successful wound healing, they require intensive wound care and rigorous monitoring.” She said that, depending on the complexity of the wound and the type of patient, they use different multi-modal techniques including debridement, larvae therapy, hydrosurgery therapy topical negative pressure therapy, split skin grafts and pressure relief.
Foot care and arterial reconstruction
At a session on foot care and arterial reconstruction, Christopher Attinger (Washington, USA) said that using the angiosome principle to guide revascularisation is a critical component for optimising wound healing. He explained that the angiosome concept divides anatomic regions into three-dimensional blocks of tissue fed by source arteries and creates a framework for understanding tissue perfusion, predicting wound healing, and planning surgical interventions. Therefore, “understanding the boundaries of an angiosome and the vascular connections between source arteries provides the basis for limb salvage to optimise revascularisation to ischaemic areas and promote wound healing.”
Mauro Gargiulo (Bologna, Italy) spoke on the need to have multidisciplinary guidelines to support the treatment of critical limb ischaemia. He referred to a consensus document that has been recently published on the treatment of peripheral arterial disease in diabetes written by the Italian Societies of Diabetes (SID, AMD), Radiology (SIRM) and Vascular Endovascular Surgery (SICVE). The consensus, published in Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Disease (Aiello A et al, 2014; 24: 355–369), higlights that “the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is high in diabetic patients and, associated or not with peripheral neuropathy, can be found in 50% of cases of diabetic foot.” Gargiulo said that the document summarises indications for revascularisation, revascularisation techniques and details on follow-up of revascularised patients, among other topics.
In the same session, Bijan Modarai spoke about effective cell therapies for revascularisation of critical limb ischaemia and Roberto Ferraresi discussed patient-centric revascularisation strategies.
At the end of the ilegx Collaboration Day a roundtable consensus on the role of drug-eluting balloons for the treatment of superficial femoral artery including data from the IN.PACT SFA, ILLUMINATE, Levant 2 and BIOLUX-PI studies was held. Vascular News will be reporting on the outcomes of this discussion.
For the first time at the Charing Cross Symposium, physicians shared their product ideas with experienced physician-inventors, engineers and marketing experts in an event called “Speed Dating”. The event was held at the Innovation Showc